Full text: Close-range imaging, long-range vision

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K. Tokmakidis*, D. Scarlatos ” 
? Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dpt of Geodesy & Surveying, 54006 Thessaloniki, Greece, tokmakid@topo.auth.gr 
? Geoanalysis S.A., 24 N. Plastira str. N. Smirni, 17121 Athens, Greece, dskarlat@geoanalysis.gr 
Commission V, WG V/4 
KEY WORDS: Close Range, Photogrammetry, Archaeological Site, Excavation 
During the last decade there have been many constructions of roads and other technical works taken place in Greece. All those have 
caused an extraordinary great number of newly found archaeological sites due to all those constructions. In all cases there is an 
extraordinary need for fast mapping techniques in order to continue the construction works. Usually archaeologists need a long time 
for excavating the site and after that they need another long period for documenting all the findings with surveys and photos. The 
real need is to describe and document the status of the findings and in some cases this should take place several times while the 
excavation continues to the lower levels of the site. We also can have the determination and analysis of the site in order to compare 
the uses of the site throughout the years. Close range techniques have been developed in order to solve this problem. Another extra 
we have nowadays is the software development which solves many problems and makes things easier. 
Finally some examples are given from applications that took place during the construction of Egnatia which will be a vital main road 
in north Greece. In those examples we have used a radio controlled model helicopter to take the photos from which we have then 
produce the final plans and orthophotos. 
A major need of archaeologists during and after excavations is 
an accurate and detailed plan of the site for documenting the 
situation of the findings. This plan in many cases should be 
drawn in various layers of the excavation due to differences in 
the lower levels of the site. They should do this for recording 
the situation of findings, for studying or restoring the sites and 
programming the future excavations. Registration for a 
monument is needed each time we want to study, or to repair, or 
to reconstruct, or to conserve it. There is no possibility to do 
anything on a monument or an archaeological site without 
drawing its present accurate situation on a plan. Also in some 
cases we have to survey the monuments just for registration 
purposes only, because there are monuments which are 
invaluable and we have to register them in detailed archives. 
This becomes more obvious for all classical ancient monuments 
all over the world. The necessity of surveying the monuments 
and the archaeological sites is obvious. 
Traditionally they survey the excavations using string-grids or 
in a better case theodolites or total stations. Last years the 
classic method of surveying by architects is modernized and 
automated with less people and time needed for similar or 
sometimes better results. New techniques are developed that 
give various methods for the survey and the editing of the final 
plans. Even more when we need detail surveys in large scale we 
need high accuracy in measuring thus we apply special 
surveying methods. Whenever a detailed plan is needed in great 
scale we have to apply different methods in surveying. Last 
years the classic method of surveying by architects is 
modernized and automated with less people and time needed for 
similar or sometimes better results. Apart of all those techniques 
photogrammetry has also changed a lot and became friendlier in 
a great number of specialists due to its automation through 
When we choose photogrammety, we need high accuracy in 
control points. Another factor we have to face is that we need 
very high resolution in shots; therefore we use large format 
cameras. Usually we use control points for the survey which are 
permanent marked on its surface in a way that they can easily be 
used for further densification of the details in future surveys. In 
this way we succeed to have higher accuracy and connectivity 
of the measurements between different measuring epochs. At 
last emphasis has been given in detail surveys as a major tool 
for studying the monuments. Also detailed plans are used for 
reconstruction in a computer graphic environment, those 
presentations are valuable for restoring the monuments. 
As a result of the above many scientists are involved in 
surveying monuments. Their specialization varies widely and a 
common language is needed but more over is needed their close 
collaboration. So the archaeologist, the architect, the 
conservatist, the engineer, the phogrammetrist, the surveyor, 
and others are requested to work together as a team. And 
generally, I believe that, we are leaded in a new century of 
teamwork, because of the huge and very fast development of 
On the other hand the cost that concerns both time and money 
has been eliminated in the modern methods of surveying. This 
is because of the automation in many steps in both field and 
office work. Even though the cost of the initial instrumentation 
is higher it is worthy because you have the payback sooner. 
Many new techniques have been developed for surveying 
monuments during the last years. This happened because of the 
development of instrumentation in surveying, of computers 
which automated most of the work, of photogrammetric 
instrumentation from analogue plotters to the digital plotters and 

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