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Mesures physiques et signatures en télédétection

2.1 The POEM Programme
Drawing on the mission requirements of ERS-1 and ERS-2, ESA has extended its requirements to a programme
of new polar orbiting systems. Under the ESA Polar Orbit Earth observation Missions programme (POEM),
two satellites are being developed: the ENV1SAT-1 and METOP platforms. The mission objectives for the
ГОЕМ programme are to identify and advance the understanding of relevant processes to monitor the state of the
Earth/atmosphere system. The mission goals include:
• continuity of ongoing European remote sensing projects such as ERS-1
• contribution to operational meteorology
• environmental studies including chemistry
The mission will complement both national and international ongoing programmes and provide a technically
realistic, feasible and cost effective polar orbiting system.
2.2 Meteosat Second Generation
From geostationary orbit, MSG will focus on operational meteorology applications but will also contribute to
land applications on a large spatial scale. The spectral bands have a sampling distance of 3km at sub satellite
point and in addition a high resolution visible band with a 1km sampling distance at SSP. The second
generation will greatly improve upon the land applications capability of the current operational Meteosat system
through its improved spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics.
2.3 POEM-Next
ESA is considering many potential instruments for future missions beyond 2000. Following discussions with a
large section of the remote sensing community a prime candidate for a future mission would be a dedicated land
mission sensing at high spatial and spectral resolution.
The primary objective of a high resolution land surface mission is to increase the understanding of
land/atmosphere interactions at the local scale in order to advance understanding of interactions on the regional
and global scale. This high spatial resolution imaging facility will help to fully understand the averaged
response of coarse resolution imaging sensors, such as AATSR, AVHRR, MERIS, and MODIS, used in their
operational role of monitoring Earth fluxes.
ESA has recognised, via its Science Advisory Group on Land Surface Processes, the need for a high spatial and
high spectral resolution mission addressing land surface processes issues. It has also recognised the need to
acquire data over a wide wavelength range from the visible through to the thermal infrared to obtain
complementary information needed for input into the various processes models.
For some time ESA has been studying critical technology issues to establish the feasibility of a High
Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HRIS) and a High Resolution Thermal Infrared Radiometer (HRTIR).
Subsequently, a feasibility study has been initiated under the auspices of the Earth Observation Preparatory
Programme (EOPP) for a high resolution land surface processes mission which will combine many of the
capabilities of the two instruments concepts. This facility is entitled "PRISM" (Processes Research by an
Imaging Space Mission).
To realise the primary objectives of the land processes mission, PRISM will create data sets on the intermediate
scale of 10's of metres which can be verified by field experiments. These data can then be used as input to submesoscale
submesoscale GCM's, or Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) models, forming the basis for nested
models. Thus such a mission will forge an effective link between ground truth observations and regional and
global scale remote sensing data sets.
The high spectral resolution capability foreseen for PRISM is required to resolve the subtle differences and
changes in response caused by the processes to be studied.