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Mesures physiques et signatures en télédétection

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K. Takahashi, K. Mineuchi, H. Kobayashi, N. Sakurai, A. Komatsu, M. Takahashi,
T. Nakamura, M. Koizumi* and H. Kano*
Kisarazu National College of Technology, Kisarazu, Chiba 292;
‘National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan
Spectral changes of laser induced chlorophyll
fluorescence in intact crop leaves by temperature, air-
polhitants and genetic inheritances were examined by
resolving the spectra into tentative fluorescence eminer
components, F680, F685, F695, F725, F745 and other
one or two minor emitters at longer wavelengths.
Emissions of F680 and F685 were considered to be
related to peripheral antenna of photosystem II, F695
core antenna of photosystem II, F725 core antenna of
photosystem I and F745 peripheral antenna of
photosystem I based on differences among spectra of
leaves of rice wild-type and chlorina mutant plants
excited with Ar (477 & 488 nm) or diode (693 nm) laser
lights, and leaves of rice wild-type plants preilluminated
photosystem II. Emissions from peripheral antenna of
photosystem II were sensitive to high temperature and
fumigation with exhaust gases of automobiles.
Fumigation of gases containing O 3 reduced emission
from peripheral antenna of photosystem L Fluorescence
spectra of leaves affected severely by O 3 showed reduced
emissions from peripheral antenna of photosystem II as
well as photosystem I, which resembled those of the
chlorina mutant plants completely lacking light
harvesting peripheral antenna chlorophylls (LHC).
Measurement of spectral changes of laser induced
chlorophyll fluorescence is useful to monitor affections
of photosynthesis in vegetation from environmental
conditions in remote sensing.
KEY-WORDS: Air-pollutants fumigations, Chlorina
mutants, High temperature, Kidney bean, Laser induced
chlorophyll fluorescence, Rice.
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in plant leaves is a
hopeful means for monitoring terrestrial vegetations
(Chappelle et al., 1984; Takahashi et al., 1988),
environments of which have been greatly varied by
human living producing many sorts of air-pollutants
snd inducing global irregular climate. Spectra of
fluorescence induced by projecting Ar or He-Ne laser
light on intact plant leaves have two peaks around 685
nm (Fn) and 740 nm (Fi), which show induction kinetics
characteristic of chlorophyll fluorescence (Kocsanyi et
al., 1988; Rinderie & Lichtenthaler, 1988; Takahashi et
al., 1991). The spectral profile varies according as
changes of intrinsic and extrinsic conditions of the
leaves. Intensity of the F] peak against the Fn peak
(Fi/Fn ratio) is linearly elevated with increasing
chlorophyll content, which may be usable to know
chlorophyll content of leaves in remote sensing
(Takahashi et al., 1991).
In this investigation, in order to know effects of
environmental conditions on photosystems in intact
leaves, spectral changes of laser induced chlorophyll
fluorescence by high temperature and fumigation of
air-pollutants in rice and kidney bean leaves were
measured and analyzed by resolving into emitter
components referring to spectra of rice wild-type and
chlorina mutant plants. Results may provide many
applications of LIF for monitoring terrestrial vegetations
in remote sensing.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) wild-type plants (cv.
Nipponbare and Norin 8 ) and chlorina mutant plants
which are partly deficient in chlorophyll b (CMV-15,
CMV-16 and CMV-17) and completely lacking
chlorophyll b (MGS -88 and CMV-44) (Kano, 1987;
Kano et al., 1988), and kidney bean (Phaseohts vulgaris)
plants were grown in a great house under natural light at
28°C in the day time and 23°C at night. Chlorophyll
contents in leaves of rice wild-type plants were varied
by controlling the supply of nutrients. Kidney bean
plants were subjected to fumigations with exhaust gases
of an automobile containing 30 ppm and 90 ppm
nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and 3 ppm and 12 ppm sulphur
dioxide (SO 2 ) for 1 h, or fumigations with gases containing
O 3 at concentrations of 0.7 ppm and 0.9 ppm for 1 h
followed by incubation under natural light conditions for
24 h. Concentrations of NOx and SO 2 were measured
by a gas tester system (GASTEC Co. US, Kanagawa,