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Papers for the international symposium Commission VI
Sitek, Zbigniew

The Economics of Close-Range Photogrammetry
L. Hardegen, Heerbrugg, Switzerland
For architectural photogrammetry the architect, the person engaged in
the conservation of monuments, the archaeologist, the art historian,
the researcher, as well as the surveyor and the photogrammetrist have
at their disposal a range of photographic and plotting systems whose
design is based on the latest discoveries in optics, mechanical engi
neering and electronics. This paper is devoted to show how these in
struments can be used most economically in practice.
Remarks on the use of the different instrument systems for photography
and plotting
As a result of the development of new photographic cameras and plotters
for terrestrial photogrammetry, almost every photographic situation can
be mastered by the photogrammetrist. Various photogrammetric cameras
with different principal distances ensure utilisation of the full image
format and the largest possible photographic scale. Such difficult spe
cial cases as limited space, particularly difficult topographic condi
tions, objects which are inaccessible, far away or dangerous to set
foot in make high demands on the universality of the photographic and
plotting system. Each field of application has its own criteria. The
size and depth of the object, the camera distance and the required acc
uracy vary from case to case. The final consideration, as in aerial
photogrammetry, is to decide under which conditions photogrammetry is
more advantageous than traditional methods.
Description of the photographic cameras
The new Wild P 31 Universal Terrestrial Camera was designed on the
modular principle and consists, basically of the camera support with
tribrach and three interchangeable metric cameras
- the super-wide-angle camera f/5.6, f = 4.5 cm
- the wide-angle camera f/8, f = 10 cm, and
- the normal-angle camera f/8, f = 20 cm.
The cameras rest in a ring on the camera support which can be tilted
about the horizontal axis. By means of this ring, various camera tilts
from -50° to vertical as well as the rotation of the camera about its
axis for photographs with horizontal or vertical format are possible.
There are fixed stops for parallel-averted or convergent photographs.
The camera is rotated about a vertical axis relative to the middle sec
tion of the camera support. The middle section of the camera support