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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

T. M. Celikoyan a , M. O. Altan a , G. Kemper b G. Toz a
a ITU, Division of Photogrammetry, 80626 Maslak Istanbul, Turkey, (mcelikoyan, oaltan, tozg)@itu.edu.tr
b GGS, Kammererstr.14, 67346 Speyer, Germany, kemper@ggs-speyer.de
WG5 - Archaeology and Photogrammetry
KEY WORDS: Archaeology, Three-Dimensional, Visualisation, CAD, Helium-Balloon, Remote Controller
This study describes a special application of aerial photogrammetry. A digital camera, mounted under a balloon has been used for
taking aerial photos. The plan of the antique theatre in Patara had to be mapped out of photogrammetric stereo-models, which have
been generated from the photos. Taken from the Helium-balloon, the photos view the area from an altitude of 30 to 40 meters. This
altitude is fine for a suitable ground resolution of 5 cm. Another parameter for the flight altitude was the lift force of the balloon,
which has a limit to approx. 50 m for this application. Computer CDs have been used as ground control points, which were painted
with blue colour, so that they wouldn’t reflect for being clearly visible. The entire area was marked by approximately 80 of such
ground control points. They have been measured by classical terrestrial methods with a Pentax ATS 102 total station. For the facades
of the theatre, classical terrestrial photogrammetric methods have been used. Some stone comers have been taken as additional
control points. Their positions have been mapped onto a sketch.
The evaluation process has been done using Pictran and AutoCAD software. At the end of the study, a detailed layout plan, some
profiles and plans of all facades has been evaluated.
In an ongoing study, photogrammetric tests with PhoTopoL-Atlas Software are running with the goal to create an accurate 3d model
with animations of the theatre. Further on, the data should be stored in GIS application as well to be part of web-based GIS-
application for tourist affairs and as well as for archaeological reconstruction aims.
Photogrammetry is a very suitable evaluation technique for
many complex objects. It is widely used for documentation of
archaeological heritage. For this purpose, terrestrial images are
used for a long time, both, for facades and ground plans. Digital
photogrammetric techniques allow evaluating oblique
photographs but in most cases this kind of photos make the
exterior orientation difficult and the evaluation progress much
longer. This disadvantage appears especially by drawing maps
of the study areas.
As well known, aerial images are most suitable database for
evaluating and mapping objects. But the high-cost of aircraft
campaigns force the scientists and photogrametrists to think
about cheaper solutions especially for smaller areas. These
solutions are: (Leloglu et all.)
Remote controlled model helicopter
Remote controlled model aircraft
Some of these solutions have already tested for remote sensing,
archaeological documentation, change detection etc. A 28 mm
camera hanged up to the balloon has been used for change
detection purposes from 100-200 m in height (Miyamoto et al.)
Another low-altitude aerial photogrammetric application was
done about archaeological documentation with a 35mm camera
mounted under a balloon from 31m height (Karras et al.).
2.1 Study Area
Patara is an ancient city placed in the southern part of Turkey,
situated at the Mediterranean coast near Kalkan, between
Fethiye and Antalya. Patara, founded about 500 BC, was the
major port of the Lycian empire, located at the mouth of the
Xanthos River. Patara was enlarged under Alexander the great
in the year 333 BC. Around the year 300, St. Nicholas was bom
in Patara and was active in this region.
The city was later running out of interest and destroyed by the
sand-accumulation of the Xanthos-river at the seaside, where
wind filled the harbor and big parts of the city with dunes. In
the last few years, big activities have been undertaken with
excavation of the buildings, especially of the theatre. The
theatre was exempted from several hundreds of lorries of sand.
Since several years, groups of Turkey archaeological scientists
aim to open the history of Patara. To get a detailed geodetic
map of it, there came the request to the ITU. For this job, the
balloon system seemed to be a worth full technology to map it.
The first objective of the study was the theatre in this
archaeological site. The theatre is about 80x100 m big.
2.2 Control Points
As control points for aerial photogrammetry, compact disks
have been used. In order to reduce the reflectance, all of them
were painted blue and red/white stickers have been plastered