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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

R. Krivanek
Institute of Archaeology of Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Letenskâ 4, CZ-118 01 Praha 1, Czech Republic,
tel.: +420-2-575 33 782, fax: +420-2-575 32 288, email: krivanek@arup.cas.cz
Task Group TG3
KEY WORD: archaeology, geophysics, surveying, measurements, mapping, identification, hillfort, fortification
Paper describes the present new way and possibility of application of non-destructive geophysical method for survey of the whole
hillforts in Czech republic. Remains of archaeological activities on hillforts are very often non-preserved on the surface of present
remodeled terrains. The results of quick and very efficient magnetometric measurements applied in large scale of ha could contribute
to new documentation of important archaeological monuments where it is possible to recognize also various subsurface
archaeological situations. Choosen examples from finished or present archaeological projects should present efficiency of
geophysical surveys and use of these results as in archaeology as for better evidence and adequate protection of landscape of hillforts
as archaeological monument.
The hillfort is one from the most common and typical
archaeological monuments in landscape of many european
countries. Very common it is also use of important, strategic
or dominant sites in more prehistoric (neolithic, eneolithic,
bronze age, iron age, roman) or early medieval periods.
Various types of these fortified centres of settlement have
very often specific or strategic location, characteristic land
use, typical shape, dimensions or orientation of site
respecting terrain situation. According to the practical use of
particular parts of site we can also suppose more different
anthropogenous activities inside and outside of hillfort
(settlement, production, burial cemetery areas,...). At present
time approx. 340 hillforts in Czech republic are included and
protected as archaeological monument, but the final no. of
hillforts will be very probably even much higher. Large
dimensions of hillforts (varying in czech archeology between
0,X ha and more than 100 ha) and the real (financial, personal
or time) possibilities of archaeological research does not offer
to have a detailed information about more than only smaller
part of only some choosen sites. For more complexed
information about the whole hillfort - potential
archaeological monument it is necessary to combine precise
results of archeological excavations (if there are any) within
results of archaeological non-destructive survey methods
(aerial or geophysical survey) which we can use for
identification and mapping of the main only in subsurface
preserved archaeological situation in scale of the whole site.
The result of aerial prospection it is possible to use for
preliminary new or quantitative evidence and documentation
of hillforts. The result of geophysical measurements it is
possible also to use for qualitative documentation and more
precise separation of hillforts and also for identification of
particular archaeological situations and features (Krivanek
2000). Experiences from new archaeological projects in
Bohemia showed the most efficient ways of survey of new
discovered or previous known or excavated hillforts.
The first complexed non-destructive (including geophysical)
surveys of hillforts were carried out in the archaeological
project "Settlement Pattern of Prehistoric Bohemia" (Gojda et
al. 1997-2002, Grant Agency of the Czech Republic -
404/97/K024). Subsequent application of area magnetometric
surveys by 2 Cs-magnetometers (gradient variant of
Smartmag SM-4g, Scintrex, Canada) together with
systematic field walking survey and GPS measurement
(Trimble Pathfinder TDC1, USA) contribute to identification
of the surface unpreserved remnants of fortification systems
and another activities on arable areas of new discovered or
proved hillforts by aerial photography (Gojda 2000; Krivanek
1999, 2002). Geophysical (mainly magnetometric) surveys
were focussed to verification of new results of aerial
prospection and to more precise identification of subsurface
remains of fortification of hillforts.
Very important loss of origin archaeological terrains in
agricultural regions we could document on abandoned and