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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

CIP A 2003 XIX th International Symposium, 30 September - 04 October, 2003, Antalya, Turkey
The first result of survey work is the realization of a topography
framing of surviving structure of boundary wall and the
realization of one general planimetry where are individuated a
mesh of fixes points on the ground like reference for the next
work. It was made with 6 polygonal structures and 69 stations,
so in all 1566 surveyed points on the boundary of wall around
the peninsula. The topographic reference was important for
illustrating the main altimeters outlines of structures on the
ground, on the seaside level, and on the top. Special attention
was for the analysis of architectonical structure connected with
fortification, like supports or some functional interacting part;
these ones have been object of operations of detail relief
executed with methodologies integrated of directed, celerimetric
and photogrammetric survey.
3 Description of the city walls
In the choice of the parts to inquire particular attention has been
made to the relationship elapsing between these last ones and
the city walls, to obtain along the existing perimeter an
exhausting picture of the connected buildings.
The more complex part of the system, also for obvious
implications of urbanism, is the one revolt towards the mainland
at the North of the peninsula, watching over the strait earth
border that guarantees the communication between city and its
territory and combines the two ancients harbour basins to the
East and to the West of the promontory.
This zone presents an high ground where we can see clear signs
of structures of palaces and holy building; there is also an
autonomous boundary wall connected to the town one: a sort of
a secondary little acropolis or castle showing many works of
reconstruction and adaptation and that follows the natural
course of contour line with a complex planimetrie course. Inside
of the castle there is the Castellum acquae, between the
numerous rests of building still not enough inquired; It is the
building of the head of the roman aqueduct used for the
collection and the successive redistribution of water resources
inside the old town. This system present great vaulted rooms
inside, communicating each other and covered by plaster and
earthenware, used like passage for the management of
waterworks, for system of separating and for regulating level of
water. On the wall are visible thick coats of calcareous deposit
revealing the long-lasting use of these structures. The West and
the North cistern’s walls are integrated into other walls and into
a circular tower, and are one of the angular bastion of the castle.
Close to that structure there is one of the ancient gates of the
town, the North Gate, almost all underground today, with a big
monolithic lintel outside, an arched lintel of a big arc inside
walls and a thick plate marble lining, apparently seemed to be
reused, of On the north of boundary walls there are rests of a
great polygonal tower with a regular octagonal plan, with a very
good making marble face. The castle boundary wall let see very
late phases and seems completely rehashed in the late Middle
Age, probably the last phase of Iasos urbanization.
The south castle walls are turned towards the contiguous level
area where are greater monuments of the ancient town: the big
agorà encircled of Imperial Age arcades covered by south walls
of the same castle, the main temples and the Bouleuterion.
Iasos boundary wall follows the north-west perimeter of these
last ones structures, often taking part of different aged buildings
like the angular hellenistic tower of agorà, the lateral
Bouleuterion wall where there is one of the deambulatory gate
1998, ppl4 - 15, e CANNONI M„ CORNIETI M.,
SOVERINI C, TIEFENTHALER M., 2003, pp 7 - 10.
under the cavea, and the monumental Agorà Gate placed after
an outside staircase, with a face showing a lot of building
phases; one of them presents various arcade lintel reusing that
was around the inside place. In the North part of this zone there
is another roman arch of a second gate.
A great building of central cruciform plant was object of a
detailed survey. It is closed by a semicircular apses on the high
level that were articulated on three of the four wings; it presents
vaulted tiles rooms realized in roman late age. It was a thermal
place probably: in fact there are water-pipes of bricks inside of
the walls and passing between more levels.
However structure shows formers systems staying in places
close to the East Gate, one of the most ancient gate of walls, and
englobing a great part of urban’s walls, covering the cymatium.
Another great building of large vaulted rooms communicating
each other and open toward external by slits was carefully
surveyed. The presence of a strong plaster, signs of mineral
deposits on the walls, an ingenious system of mill weirs, is
supposed to be a cistern.
Singular buildings near the seaside were surveyed as well. They
are covered by stony barrel-vault.
The not survey’s parts of the first campaign are considering in
this one, like some part of defensive structures of the
“Byzantine castle” or like some portion of the boundary wall.
The direct survey either planimetrie or of front view was made
with traditional methodologies: making draft on the spot where
to sign metrical values, making polygonal figure around
architectonical structures including topographic points just
surveyed in 1997, for surveying through trilateral signs. The
specific survey was made at different altimetrical levels,
through cartesian coordinates, very good methodology for
archaeology because of so irregular sections.
Survey of walls has a very important part for reading fronts and
was made by using plane photogrammetry and the next image
computer drafting.
4 Conclusions
Regarding to analysing walls was made a schedule for writing
the U.S.M. (statigraphical units of walls) before; that’s why is
necessary to have an elastic instrument for cataloguing,
adapting at the characteristics of studied objects. The use of
portable PC consented a partial check on place of results.
Sampling of U.S.M. more than description of instrument and
study of geometric characteristics, made drawing of mortar
samples that were sent to a laboratory to analyze their chemical-
physical characteristics.
Mineralogical and petrographical analyses of mortar samples
coming from different stratigraphic units of the walls.have been
attempted. The importance of a deep knowledge of the amterials
used as mortars in the works of masonry is due to the need of
characterising their composition and quantifying the percentage
of the different components, suche as aggregate and/or binder.
The comparison of the samples and the evaluation of data from
both excavation samples and stratigraphical analyses of the
walls could allow to define relative or absolute chronologies.
These temporal data could be useful for the study of manufacts
of the Iasos archaeological site. The large use of these
methodologies in the survey could add useful information on
both the technological processes and on the sites the studied
materials come from. For this aim we need the sperimentation
of G. I. S. sistems for the georeferentiation of the mass of the
informations. The research will also represent an important
documentation for a reliable chronological reconstruction of the
different phases of development of the ancient urban site.
We have collected a lot of data and information till today, but is
true that to get better a chronology or to suppose a periodization
is necessary to wait the end of survey operations, according to