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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

CI P A 2003 XIX th International Symposium, 30 September - 04 October, 2003, Antalya, Turkey
Figure 8a, 8b. Field survey and documentation.
4.1 Detailed Documentation and Damage Assessment
The cracks, collapsed sections and the types of deterioration are
indicated on the existing 1:50 scaled survey drawings in
mapping format. As a restoration project was required, the
defined types of damage were not only indicated on the interior
faces visible in the sections but also on additional drawings
showing all of the interior wall surfaces. There were cracks of
various sizes on the exterior faces and the facade claddings
beginning from the roof level parapet and continuing down to
the sides of the window openings at different levels. There were
additional cracks on the interior walls extending from the
ceilings down to the floor levels. As the determination of the
size of the cracks would enable the definition of the appropriate
type of intervention for their repair, the width, length and depth
of all of the visible cracks were measured and indicated on the
4.2 Photographic and Photogrammetric Documentation
Painted decorations (kalemi$i) on the ceilings that are directly
attached to a timber lath subsurface on decaying timber floor
beams, would have to be repaired and partially reproduced due
to the damage they have suffered during the earthquake. In
order to carry out this intervention in the appropriate manner,
the ceilings had to be documented in detail with
photogrammetric methods. Firstly, ceiling surfaces were
photographed with metric cameras in the sense of digital close
range Photogrammetry and these images were scanned at high
resolution. Secondly, digital models were created using triple
images on the computer environment and evaluated with
photogrammetric methods and finally the rectified plan images
for each ceiling were produced. In addition to 1:20 scaled
general rectified photographic plan images, the baroque
paintings inserted within this scheme were documented in detail
of 1:1 scale with the same methods. This survey was carried out
by Assoc. Prof. Dr. C. ipbiiker and Dr. $. Kaya from the
Department of Geodesy and Photogrammetry Engineering of
the Faculty of Civil Engineering at Istanbul Technical
4.3 Material Analyses
Gypsum and lime-based mortars, plasters, finishes and natural
stones used in the building have been sampled for laboratory
Figure 9a, 9b, 9c. Rectified photographic
plan image and the drawing of Room Z03. A sample of colour analyses for Room Z03
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The collapsed debris of the cornice from the east facade roof
level parapet was collected in the garden. These pieces were
classified, numbered and then documented on inventory fiches
in detail, showing such characteristics as shape, size and
materials, dowel holes and cracks, etc., with the aim of
understanding how they could be re-fitted and identifying those
which may be re-used in the restoration.
The profiles of the three-dimensional projecting cornices on the
corners of the interior walls and ceilings, which have been
severely damaged and were probably to be reproduced were
surveyed and documented in detail at 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 scales,
and the decorative elements on them were traced. Their
reproduction according to their original shape, size and
decorative patterns would be possible depending on this data.
analyses that would determine the characterisation of the
traditional materials used in the building. The original materials
and those dating from later period repairs used on the facades
were mapped on survey drawings. Imitation stone panels used
in former repair-work have destroyed the originally designed
facade polychrome as their colour is different from those of the
natural stone ones. Also the artificial stone panels, which were
attached to the wall faces with mortar, have mostly collapsed
during the earthquake causing further damage to other parts of
the building. The broken panels would have to be replaced with
new ones, paying due consideration to the original facade
composition and colour scheme. Other in-situ natural stone
panels with superficial deterioration had been repaired with
Portland cement-based mixtures, which blocks the natural
ventilation of the building walls, causing further problems
related to dampness and the destructive effect of water-soluble
salts as well as disturbing the visual integrity of the facades.