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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

N.M. Almazova
Dr., Specialized company KREAL, 125171 Moscow, Russian Federation-kreal@kreal.ru
KEY WORDS: Surveying, Geophysics, Research, ISPRS Archives, Analysis, Design, measuring, examination
Monuments of culture and history preservation constitute a responsible and complicated problem, the decision of which can be
accomplished only on the basis of thorough study of their state. One of the main components of this process is carrying out complex
engineering surveys. Complex engineering studies of architectural monuments, buildings and structures of Cultural Heritage, which
KREAL Specialized Company carries out, include the following kinds of work:
• Geodesic-engineering
• Electronic measuring
• Geological-engineering
• Foundations and base examination
• Geophysical survey
• Examination of surface load bearing constructions, and underground parts of buildings and structures
• Ecological-engineering
• Development of engineering solutions for correction of revealed defects
• Drafts and proposals on implementation of developed engineering solutions
• Quality control of the developments
As a result step the detailed calculation of architectural monuments as a single "building - base - foundation" system with due
account of the existing damages are carrying out. The above mentioned approach based on the initial examination and structure
calculation would provide optimal solutions to the restoration of the Cultural Heritage. All of this principals are demonstrated on the
examples of complex engineering surveys of Church of ascension in the Kolomenskoye State museum - reserve.
Timely and professional restoration and renovation works
performed at the World Heritage monuments are contingent
upon an accurate and complex approach pursued in the course
of the technical examination of such monuments. A
fundamental basis used in order to forecast the way the
monument will behave in the future is a diagnosis of the
condition of such monument that includes determination of the
extent of aggression of the operational environment, physic-
mechanical and physic-chemical parameters of constructions,
degree of corrosion of materials, and an extent to which mutual
mechanical links between specific elements of such
constructions were weakened, including changes in the
condition of the background soil, etc.. Any further processing of
meanings of diagnostic parameters and performance of required
calculations in order to determine the residual resistance of
monuments and constructions is intended for the assessment of
a possibility and feasibility of restoration and renovation works,
and if they are to be conducted, the above mentioned approach
fully determines the means, methods and scope of such works.
Besides, an acute need to objectively assess a technical and
physical condition of specific elements of buildings and
constructions (foundation, basement, walls, ceilings, roof) is
linked to the task of capital costs minimization for restoration
and renovation of architectural monuments in particular.
Specialized company KREAL conducts complex
engineering surveys of various buildings, project drafting and
construction, including the following works:
• Engineering and geodesic works;
• Electronic measurements;
• Engineering and geological works;
• Examination of the foundation and basement;
• Examination of supporting constructions of on-the-ground
and underground parts of buildings;
• Engineering-environmental works;
• Development of technical solutions aimed at elimination of
disclosed defects;
• Blueprints and project proposals aimed at implementation
of developed technical solutions.
Engineering-geodesic works and measuring of
monuments are intended for obtaining of a topographic shooting
of the locale, floor plans, cross-sections, and facades, including
photographic surveys. Engineering-geodesic works include a
control over deformations of the monument, geodesic support of
restoration works. Measurement results allow to determine the
exact size and volume of the monument, create a spatial model,
perform calculations on the basis of such spatial model.
Engineering-geological works include:
• Drilling holes with mechanical units for up to 50
meters down under the gorund
• Conducting statistic boring of the ground
• Conducting electro-dynamic boring of the ground
• Lab tests and field tests of the soil