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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

urbana ed
os Systems’
.M., 2001.
ntenna with
tional Modal
, Milano.
for Simple
C. Guney a , R. N. Celik a , L. Thys-Çenocak b , A. Ozsavasci c
a lTU, Civil Engineering Faculty, Geodesy Division, 80626 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey - (guneycan, celikn)@itu.edu.tr
b KU, History Department, Rumeli Fener Yolu, Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey - (LSENOCAK@ku.edu.tr)
c Architect (ITU), Istanbul, Turkey - (aozsavasci@yahoo.com)
KEY WORDS: Heritage documentation, historical research, geodetic survey, architectural survey, survey methodology, 3D digital
database, multi-discipliner interactions, GIS
In this paper, the intersection of geodetic and architectural survey techniques are examined through the case study of the heritage
documentation project of two Ottoman fortresses, Seddiilbahir and Kumkale. During the five-year period of the survey, traditional as
well as several new techniques for surveying and compiling architectural, historical and geodetic data were utilized, the results of the
documentation project are now being processed and prepared for publication. The project was initiated as research on a specific
topic; the most recent step in the documentation process has been the integration of all collected data into GIS. Threecomponents of
heritage documentation that were used in this project are explained in this paper and compared to contemporaryapproaches in
heritage documentation. This paper addresses the various challenges and choices that our team faced during the course of the project,
both in terms of understanding and utilizing the most recent survey technologies available in Turkey and in working with a multi
disciplinary team in a heritage documentation project.
In this paper, the intersections of geodetic and architectural
survey methods are examined through the case study of a
recent documentation project of two seventeenth century
Ottoman fortresses located either side of the Dardanelles:
Seddiilbahir and Kumkale, the project was initiated in 1997
by the Department of History, Koq University and the
Geodesy Division at Istanbul Technical University. Asst.
Prof. Lucienne Thys-$enocak from the Department of
History in K09 University directed the architectural and
historic research. The geodetic survey was directed by Assoc.
Prof. Rahmi N. Qelik from Geodesy Division of Geodesy and
Photogrammetry Department of Istanbul Technical
University. The on site surveying was completed in July
2002 and now the results of the five year survey are being
processed and prepared for publication. During the survey,
traditional as well as several new techniques for surveying
and compiling architectural, historical and geodetic data were
utilized. The most recent step in the documentation process is
the integration of various types of data into GIS
(Geographical Information Systems) application.
In 1997, the aim of the project was twofold: first to document
the existing remains of the fortress by generating the maps
and architectural drawings of the structures on the site;
second to bring together a vast array of data such as repair
records from the Ottoman archives, European and Ottoman
historical chronicles, drawings, engravings and archival
photographs from various libraries’ collections in order to
assess the development of the fortresses and adjoining
structures. The additional part of the project that developed
in the 1999-2001 seasons at Seddiilbahir and Kumkale was
the oral history of the villages whose locations were within
the parameters of the historical research and survey project,
work. Meanwhile the historical research developed into a
second and third project: the epigraphic documentation of
remaining 287 Ottoman tombstones of the Kumkale
cemetery and an oral history of the two villages of
Seddulbahir and Kumkale. Parallel to this research, the
precise geodetic and architectural survey of the fortresses and
their immediate environs continued. As the project developed
and research goals diversified, the collection of diverse types
of data and the utilization of different measurement systems
required a new platform to evaluate the data sets in an
efficient, inexpensive and productive way.
After the first year of the survey our team decided that the
optimum system for organizing the results of this type of
project was GIS. We felt that GIS would be a more
accommodating tool for our diverse research needs and
would allow for scholars from the many disciplines that are
involved in the project to interact and participate in the
particular goals that are interested in while maintaining an
understanding and appreciation of the larger research picture.
The more flexible web like structure of the GIS allows for a
less linear approach to data collection and problem solving.
As a pilot study for our GIS we decided to begin with the
simplest part of the physical survey: the Ottoman cemetery of
Kumkale. In this smaller project we could better understand
the challenges that would face us when applying GIS to the
organization of the vast amount of data we had collected for
the two fortifications. The results of this pilot project at the
Kumkale cemetery has been discussed elsewhere and the
results of some of the preliminary findings can be found on
the project website.