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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

CI P A 2003 XIX th International Symposium, 30 September - 04 October, 2003, Antalya, Turkey
documentation of a heritage site can be comprised of a wide
range of sources, from original drawings to oral testimony of
current residents. In our documentation project at the
Ottoman fortresses of Seddulbahir and Kumkale we were
fortunate to have a very rich and diverse range of archival
material which allowed us to chart the architectural and
historical development of the fortifications from the time of
their construction in the mid seventeenth century, through
several hundred years of the buildings’ evolution. For
example, the 1665 foundation deed, or vakfiyye, still exists
for the two Ottoman fortresses and is located in the
Suleymaniye Library in Istanbul. From this source we know
that the fortresses at Kumkale and Seddulbahir were each to
have within their grounds a bath, mosque, school and various
barracks for the soldiers stationed at the fortress. From
Ottoman repair records of the fortresses we have archival
information about the different types of building material
used for repairs in the 17th through the 19th centuries; in the
18th century there are extensive reports and drawings by
French military advisors who had been invited by the sultan
to modernize the military and fortifications in the Ottoman
Empire. As both Seddulbahir and Kumkale were the sites of
major battles during World War I’s Gallipoli campaign, there
are numerous photographs and sketches of the two strategic
sites in the military archives of France, Britain, and Turkey.
As Seddulbahir and Kumkale are situated at entrance to the
Dardanelles and only a few kilometers from the
archaeological sites of Troy and Eleaus, the two fortresses
have been commented upon, described and sketched
frequently by many travelers who passed through the famed
waterway of the Dardanelles.
There is, in short, a great richness and diversity in the types
of data that have been collected as part of the research into
the historical and visual records for these two Ottoman
fortresses. The challenge is to organize this data in an
efficient and accessible way so that people other than the
project members can understand it and make it available for
queries that may not have been anticipated by those who
initially conducted the archival research. The decision to use
a G1S for storage and retrieval of this type of information has
proved, to date, to be advantageous. One of the major
benefits of the GIS is that the time component of a historical
structure can be clearly mapped. In other words, we can
chart and then layer the various physical changes that have
occurred to a structure and coordinate these changes with the
archival data we have collected for a particular section of a
structure. Because the archival data is intermittent e.g. we do
not have it for every year, or for every section of the building
the research that continues by team members or others who
are interested in the project, can gradually fill in many of the
lacunae in our historical data and better coordinate it with the
physical plan. Ultimately we achieve a fairly accurate idea
of how the fortress developed and changed through several
centuries of usage.
One of the most important tasks of the documentation of a
historical site is the geodetic survey. Site documentation has
to be layered upon the foundation of the geodetic data.
Survey plans will require sufficient research to prepare a
developmental history of the project area and to identify the
contexts and associated property types. Reconnaissance
survey of the area is required to gain an understanding of the
variety, type, and location of historic properties. The final
survey plan identifies several approaches for future surveying
and describes specific objectives. Each approach or
methodology should be assigned a priority ranking to assist
in future decision making.
During the limited time of a campaign at an architectural or
archaeological site enormous amount of data is acquired.
This extensive set of initial data is necessary to determine the
directions in which the project can develop. The high
demands according to completeness, accuracy and reliability
besides the limited resources of time and manpower require
the use of modern techniques. The first task of the survey is
to establish a geodetic network to take account of the
distribution of the historical structures in the site. Thereafter
all the measurements, even simple detail measurements, must
be in the same coordinate system. The main problems like
orientation, scale, relation can besolved automatically, even
if transformation of data is required. The foundation of a
modern campaign is the design, survey and signalizing of the
geodetic network.
Determination of what measurement methods and
instruments are going to be used in survey campaigns
depends upon the target goals and expected accuracy of the
project.The GPS survey method can be used in an outdoor
survey; however TPS method will be necessary for indoor
surveys. Disto tools can be used instead of steel tapes for
easy and quick use. 3D Laser Scanning solution has some
advantages on some surfaces, which have lots of essential
details that must be measured; additionally this method
provides 3D modelling at the same time. Surveyors provide
data by using a wide variety of surveying techniques and
computer equipment, including electronic distance measuring
instruments, global positioning systems (GPS) and digital
mapping systems to define and discover natural formations
around a particular site. They process the data collected by
GPS receivers and check for accuracy and efficiency.
Surveyors attempt to determine the exact locations and
relative positions of natural features and man-made structures
on the historical site. The points of elevation in the land,
contours and other important surveying features must be
determined. For the precise surveying of building facades and
interior spaces close range photogrammetry and TPS are the
main survey methods. If control point coordinates are
available, the orientation of the images can be done on site,
and can demonstrate the need for additional control points or
for marking appropriate tie points. Digital rectifications can
be carried out on a laptop at the site, delivering an immediate
result for the the researchers. Systematic coding of the
measured points and other productions is also important.
When the survey is completed and all appropriate data
collected, the office work begins. This consists of analyzing
the data and preparing drafts , drawings and maps from this
information. If a well-considered point enumeration exists
and an appropriate software package has been installed, a
CAD model can be derived easily from the results of the
adjustment program.
The on site cooperation between the geodesy engineers and
the architects working on the project is essential for some of
practical applications involved in drawing and surveying
methods. Architectural or archaeological sketches are
generally done analogously using traditional methods, but
newer technology provides digital solutions for practical site