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International cooperation and technology transfer
Mussio, Luigi

elated to the first
cal interpretation is
GUM suggests to
rocedures, only in
■fa. (in the case the
terms should be
second category is
quality”, aimed at
can be
h other. The formal
and s(Xi)=s(Xj), is
;ase, and different,
proposed, typically
tation of the terms
s assumed as the
Its could be judged
se their intersection
; not even mention
ns. For important
the procedures to
ss the results of the
n open issue.
* the measurand value, the singleton x, is maximally
specific but uncertain, with uncertainty s(x);
* the measurand value, the interval [x-s(x),x+s(x)j, is not
completely specific but considered certain.
The same empirical information, as obtained by the
measurement, can be represented by suitably balancing
the specificity and the certainty of the result (for example,
if the statement A cannot considered certain on the basis
of the available information, then
C = “this is a more-than-100-page book”
could be adopted, less specific but more certain than A. In
the case the object is factually a 120-page book, then A
would not be “truer” than C, but more specific, and
therefore more informative, than it).
As a synthesis:
* measurement results are neither specific nor non
specific, and neither certain nor uncertain;
* they are neither singletons-with-uncertainty-degrees nor
* but they can interpreted in either way, in view of specific
Bridgman P.W., 1959. How much rigor is possible in
physics? In: Henkin et al. (eds.), The Axiomatic method,
CIPM, BIPM, 1981. Proc. Com. Int. Poids et Mesures, 49,
8-9, 26 (in French) (also reported in the Introduction of the
ISO, et al., 1993. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in
measurement. International Organization of
Standardization, Geneva.
Mari, L., Zingales, G., 1999. Uncertainty in measurement
science. In: Proceedings of the IMEKO TC7 Workshop,
Taylor N., Kuyatt C., 1997. Guidelines for Evaluating and
Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement
Results. NIST Technical Note 1297 (also available in the
web: physics.nist.gov/Pubs/guidelines/contents.html).
UNI, 1984. Misure e misurazioni. Termini e definizioni
fondamentali. Italian Standard UNI 4546.
of a measurement
on of two distinct
non-specificity”. An
meaning of such
nsider the following
r an observer on a
basis of the form of
iately drawn:
lust be true (in set-
herefore A is more
rtainty assignment
and plausibly more
c,s(x)>, admits two