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The 3rd ISPRS Workshop on Dynamic and Multi-Dimensional GIS & the 10th Annual Conference of CPGIS on Geoinformatics
Chen, Jun

ISPRS, Vol.34, Part 2W2, “Dynamic and Multi-Dimensional GIS", Bangkok, May 23-25, 2001
lents in the
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I. 6, No. 4,
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Jianya GONG Yandong WANG
National Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing,
Wuhan University
129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China, 430079
{jgong, wyd}@rcgis.wtusm.edu.cn
Key words: Federated, Spatial Databases, Interoperability
CLC number: P237.9 TP311.13 TP393 TN711
It is a period of information.explosion. Especially for spatial information science, information can be acquired through
many ways, such as man-made planet, aeroplane, laser, digital photogrammetry and so on. Spatial data sources are
usually distributed and heterogeneous. Federated database is the best resolution.for the share and interoperation of
spatial database. In this paper, the concepts of federated database and interoperability are introduced. Three
heterogeneous kinds of spatial data, vector, image and DEM are used to create integrated database. A data model
of federated spatial databases is given.
1. Introduction
The cost of the spatial data acquisition is high, and
the cost of maintaining the spatial data is even high.
How to use and share spatial data is very important
for the development of spatial data infrastructure. A
common method for spatial data sharing is to use_a
spatial data standard, such as US Spatial Data
Transfer Standard (SDTS), Chinese National Geo
spatial Data Transfer Format (CNSDTF).
Fig. 1 Data sharing using a transfer standard
The spatial data transfer standards generally have
the following characters:
Integrality means that Geo-Spatial data transfer
format should include all GIS information without any
loss during the transfer.
Geo-Spatial data transfer standard should be
simple and easy to understand.
Spatial data transfer standard should be
compatible in different kinds of GISs and different
sources of spatial information.
Because of the cognitive limitation to spatial
phenomena, the current spatial data transfer
standard may be unsuited in the future. So it should
be expandable and compatible with the former data
and software packages.
Spatial data transfer standard is a kind of type for
spatial data interoperability. But spatial data transfer
standard generally defines geometrical primitives and
do not define the level of semantic. Only
homogeneity spatial data can exchange data through
the spatial data standards. How to integrate
heterogeneous spatial databases and exchange data
between distributed multi-databases is a new project.
An ideal solution for the problem is the use of
federated database systems.
This paper is organized as follows. Section 2
describes the concepts of federated database and its
interoperability. Section 3 introduces three kinds of
heterogeneous spatial data. In section 4, a data
model of federated spatial databases is given.
2. The Concepts of Federated Database and
A federated system consists of the combination of