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The 3rd ISPRS Workshop on Dynamic and Multi-Dimensional GIS & the 10th Annual Conference of CPGIS on Geoinformatics
Chen, Jun

ISPRS, Vol.34, Part 2W2, “Dynamic and Multi-Dimensional GIS”, Bangkok, May 23-25, 2001
Shaopeng SUN 1 Guangru LI 2 Depeng ZHAO 3
1 Nautical Science and Technology Institute
Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China, 116026
E-mail: sun_sp@usa.net
2 Nautical Science and Technology Institute
Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China, 116026
E-mail: creatlgr@sina.com
3 Nautical Science and Technology Institute
Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China, 116026
KEY WORDS: GIS-OT, Distributed, Data sharing, Real-time
With the development of world economy, ocean transportation is becoming heavier and more important than before. Its data’s mass,
real-time, multiple and distributed features make us very difficult to deal with them. The development of Internet and Distributed
Computing make it possible and convenient to process mass and distributed ocean transportation data. Most of ocean transportation data
are spatial-temporal in nature, so integration of GIS and transportation technology is the powerful solution to resolve sophisticated ocean
transportation. This paper researches into how to build the distributed GIS-OT.
With the development of world economy, transportation has
become heavier than before. In ocean transportation, it needs
more real-time, mass and multiple ocean transportation data
along with the increase of ship numbers, improvement of ship
speed and diversification of cargo. Therefore, it becomes more
complicated to process ocean transportation information. In order
to manage the intricate ocean transportation information, many
departments in different places and different fields build their own
computing and data model to resolve problems in their own
applications. But most of these models are fragmented, multiple
and incompatible. Data is redundant and often conflicting data
acquisition efforts. They cannot coordinate to manage ocean
transportation information in whole. Ocean transportation can be
looked as a large network, it links distributed department of the
whole world both geographically and socially. Therefore, we need
new approach to deal with such complicated ocean transportation
network. In recent years, the development of the two key
technologies (Internet and GIS) brings forward the new approach
to storage, issue, share and analyze ocean transportation
Ocean transportation information have their special features, we
cannot adopt normal data model to describe them. But most of
them are spatial-temporal in nature, e.g. traffic volumes,
congestion, incidents, sea route, etc. GIS is a new technology to
integrate, analyze and display spatial-temporal information.
Therefore, GIS is the power tool to deal with ocean transportation
information. But traditional GIS is largely utilized in a workstation
environment, where data are accessed locally, stored in their own
data model and used by their own computing model. Currently,
many advanced ocean transportation applications require the
ability to handle spatial data dynamically and in real-time, and
these data in many cases need to be assembled from different
source. Internet provides convenient approach to transmit, issue
and share ocean transportation geographic information in
different places and different fields. Therefore, the emerging of
distributed geographic information system combining Internet and
GIS provides a new approach to access, share and disseminate
ocean transportation information. The reformation brought by the
Internet-based GIS-OT mainly described as follows:
2.1 Sharing And Interoperation Of Ocean Transportation
Geographic Information
In brief, ocean transportation geographic information can be
simply classified into two parts: static ocean geographic
environment information and dynamic ocean transportation
information. Ocean geographic environment information includes
coastline, isobaths, reef, etc. They describe detail about
geographic information and attributes of ocean which ships
voyage on. The information was seldom changed and maintained
by some departments of government. Ocean transportation
information can be farther classified into unitary information (sea
route, ocean traffic volumes, incidents, etc) and personal
information (every ship’s geographic, historic track, velocity, etc.).
Personal ocean transportation information was maintained by
every ship. Unitary ocean transportation information was
maintained by ship company and some other marine
management and monitoring departments and was partly formed
by all ship’s transportation information.
Whether ocean geographic environment information or ocean
transportation information, they all have different data providers
and data receivers, such as seaway survey department, ocean
transportation monitoring and management department, ship
companies, ECDIS producing companies, etc. Differences mainly
focus on three aspects: First, different data providers provide
different data model and different spatial accuracy. Second,
different data users have different definitions and demands of the
same transportation objects. Third, different applications require
different levels of details in spatial data representation.
IHO-S57 is the international standard of ECDIS transmission, and
most ECDIS producing companies and research communities
support this standard now, therefore, we can create a sharing
model based on this standard to resolve the sharing of ocean
geographic environment information. But the sharing of dynamic
ocean transportation information should be resolved by another
approach. In our research project, we adopt a basic