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# Full text

Title
The 3rd ISPRS Workshop on Dynamic and Multi-Dimensional GIS & the 10th Annual Conference of CPGIS on Geoinformatics
Author
Chen, Jun

ISPRS, Vol.34, Part 2W2, “Dynamic and Multi-Dimensional GIS”, Bangkok, May 23-25, 2001
74
Fig.3. Spatial Development Axes of Beijing
3.3 Model Parameters Defining
When you apply Model (3) and model (4), two kinds of model
parameters must be defined before calculating attraction
between cities. One is weight factor of city mass, and another is
friction coefficient of city distance. Because ten index were
selected to represent the mass of cities, the weight factor of city
mass is very difficult to define relayed on city mass directly.
However, the administrative class of city has non-substituted
affection to the spatial interactive between cities. Talking about
the friction coefficient of city distance, it is based on the
transportation type and class. So, the weight factor of city mass
was defined by administrative class of cities, while the friction
coefficient of city distance was defined by the transportation type
and class. The detail values of the parameters were shown in
table 2.
Table 2. Parameters of City Attraction
Weight Factor of City Mass
Friction Coefficient of Transportation
Class
Weight Factor
T ransportation
Type & Class
Friction
Coefficient
Capital
1.0
Electric Railway
0.6
Municipality
0.9
Double-line Railway
0.7
Prefecture
0.8
Single-line Railway
0.8
City
0.7
Super Highway
0.9
County
0.6
Main Highway
1.0
3.4 City Distance Measuring
The simplest distance between cities is straight-line length, but it
is nearly meaningless for interaction analysis between cities. The
real distance between cities is the shortest transportation mileage
that could mirror the spatial interaction of cities. On the basis of
transportation system analyzed in background section, the
distance between Beijing and other cities were measured by
means of GIS network analysis function. During the
measurement of distance between cities, the transportation type
and class were recorded at the same time. So, one to one
relationship between the distance and friction coefficient was
established for further calculation.
3.5 Mass Data Processing
Ten social and economic factors were selected to represent
mass of cities, which include urban population, staff and worker,
average wages, budgetary revenue, budgetary expenditure,
gross domestic product, gross output value of industry, gross
output value of agriculture, and so on. Because of the different
unit and value, the calculation result will be not true. In order to
remove the affection of unit and value, data standardization has
been processed by two kinds of ways: percentage and average.
Table 3. Data Standardization of City Mass
Original Data of City Mass
Standardized Data of City Mass
Total Population
Urban Population
Staff and Workers
Average Annual Wage
Gross Domestic Products
GOV of Industry
GOV of Agriculture
Budgetary Revenue
Budgetary Expenditure
Retail Sales of
Consumer Goods
Percentage of Total population
Percentage of Urban population
Percentage of Staff and Workers
Average Annual Wage per Capita
Per Capita GDP
Per Capita GOV of Industry
Per Capita GOV of Agriculture
Percentage of Budgetary Revenue
Percentage of Budgetary Expenditure
Percentage of Per Capita
Retail Sales of Consumer Goods
3.6 Potentiality Calculating
After all of above preparing process, the current attraction
between Beijing and other cities for each kind of city mass have
been calculated by means of model (3) and integrated spatial
database. Then, comprehensive attraction and development
potentiality of each seven direction were calculated and put in
order (refer to table 4). The comprehensive attraction means that
how much Beijing will be attracted by each city in each axis
radiation region. And the development potentiality means that
how much potentiality Beijing will be developed in the direction.
Table 4. Comprehensive Attraction and Potentiality
Development
Axes
Comprehensive
Attraction
Sequence
order
Development
Potentiality
Sequence
order
Southeast
3863.46
1
62194.52
1
Southwest
2429.42
4
60994.62
2
East
2795.02
2
58824.76
3
Northwest
1968.91
5
47259.27
4
South
1938.85
6
46838.47
5
Northeast
2670.33
3
46397.79
6
West
1009.52
7
23732.61
7
4. DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS
According to the calculating value of comprehensive attraction,
development potentiality and their sequence order, development
analysis has been done and some results can be obtained as
follows.
(1 )From the view of development potentiality value, the sequence
order is that southeast axis is the first, while the southwest axis is
the second, and the east axis is the third. It means that the future
development direction of Beijing must be inclined to southeast. In
that axis, the current city system and transportation network is
much better than others. At the same time, Tianjin harbor and
Huanghua Harbor are two important bases for international trade.
In the second development direction, cities are more
concentrated than others, while the transportation network, the
social economic situation, and the industry system are just well.
And in the third development axis, both New Tangshan and
Qinghuangdao harbor have much attraction to Beijing.
(2)From the view of comprehensive attraction value, the
sequence order is that southeast axis is the first, while the east
axis is the second, and the northeast axis is the third. This is not
totally the same to development potentiality. Although both the
attraction and the potentiality are good in east direction, the
southwest only has more potentiality but attraction because of the
concentrated cities. At the same time, the southeast has both the
maximum development potentiality and comprehensive
attraction.
Obviously, the final conclusion is that the future spatial
development direction of Beijing is southeast axis which facing
Tianjin, Langfang, and Huanghua cities.