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# Full text

Title
Mapping without the sun
Author
Zhang, Jixian

232
3.3.2 Bias Index: Bias index is the ratio between the gray
12
0.064929
0.958670
difference which is between the gray value of the fused image
13
0.064795
0.961822
and the gray value of the high resolution image and the gray
14
0.065087
0.948486
value of the fused image. It describes deflection degree between
15
0.065073
0.950037
two images. Function (2) is about it.
16
0.064782
0.967982
17
0.064744
0.969986
D i ^|/,(U)-AM
MN^h f B (i,j)
18
19
0.064893
0.065109
0.961347
0.947314
20
0.064905
0.964362
Table 2. Results of PC A transformation
where
D = bias index
M = total number of the image row
N = total number of the image column
- number of the row and column
f A = gray value of the different resolution
image
f B ^ ’ = gray value of the fused image
Bias indexes between different resolution images and fused
image can be computed by Function (2). The smaller the bias
index, the closer the resolution of the fused image and the
resolution of the high resolution.
4.3 Multiplicative Transformation
Resolution
Criterions
m
bias index
correlation coefficient
10
0.166083
0.670760
11
0.166104
0.670031
12
0.166192
0.665437
13
0.166057
0.670076
14
0.166323
0.660959
15
0.166315
0.662954
16
0.166057
0.670664
17
0.166030
0.670942
18
0.166165
0.667535
19
0.166367
0.659890
20
0.166935
0.650448
4. EXPERIMENT RESULTS
Correlation coefficient and bias index between fused image and
image aggregation of different spatial resolution was acquired
and evaluated, and then spatial resolution of remote sensing
fused image was determined quantitatively.
4.1 IHS Transformation
Resolution
Criterions
m
bias index
correlation coefficient
10
0.019391
0.780013
11
0.019501
0.783598
12
0.019666
0.770825
13
0.019786
0.782763
14
0.019941
0.760863
15
0.019889
0.763048
16
0.019345
0.781943
17
0.019302
0.783749
18
0.019543
0.775115
19
0.019974
0.759841
20
0.019518
0.776331
Table 1. Results of IHS transformation
4.2 PCA Transformation
Resolution
Criterions
m
bias index
correlation coefficient
10
0.064791
0.967980
11
0.064767
0.960864
Table 3. Results of Multiplicative transformation
4.4 Brovey Transformation
Resolution
Criterions
m
bias index
correlation coefficient
10
0.108042
0.945704
11
0.108078
0.945791
12
0.108242
0.933972
13
0.108052
0.945702
14
0.108413
0.922659
15
0.108398
0.924924
16
0.108076
0.944646
17
0.108038
0.946523
18
0.108204
0.937007
19
0.108443
0.921004
20
0.108334
0.932918
Table 4. Results of Brovey transformation
From table 1 to table 4, we can see that the biggest correlation
coefficients and the smallest bias indexes from different fusion
methods of HIS, PCA, and Brovey are 17m resolution of the
image aggregation. So the real spatial resolution of the fused
images are closer to 17m.
5. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, firstly, the image aggregation which resolution is
11m, 12m, till 20m is obtained by the resample of SPOT pan
image which resolution is 10m. Secondly, the fused images are
obtained by different fusion methods. Thirdly, the correlation
coefficients and bias indexes are computed between the image