# Full text: Mapping without the sun

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2.2 Through spatial analysis on basin’s important
geographical elements, distill verity and relationship which
impliedly in the spatial data, offer references to assistant
decision-making.
Figure 2 flowing figure of spatial analysis process
3. STATISTICS ON DRAINAGE BASIN’S IMPORT
GEOGRAPHICAL ELEMENTS
This segment mainly consider on following facets: basin’s
terrain analysis, statistic analysis of basin’s resident, highway
and river.
3.1 basin’s terrain analysis
Terrain indexes are the essential physical geography elements,
as well as the important nature elements influence human
beings’ production and living condition. Distilling of the terrain
indexes would take important role in water and soil erosion,
soil utilization, soil evaluation, urban planning and etc facets.
Distill slope, aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, SOS,
SOA, hypsography extent, coarseness extent, donga density
and etc indexes, analyze the terrain information through the
above indexes.
Generally speaking, slope, aspect, plan curvature and profile
curvature could distill directness, while other indexes need
complex Calculation.
3.2 Statistic of residential data
Analyze spatial distribution pattern of the different kinds of
residential points, calculate distribution index R using the
nearest index method, R=Dobs/Dran, in the expression, Dobs
represent the average value of each mode to its nearest node,
Dran represent the average distances of the random residential
points. Whereafter, confirm distribution pattern through R
value.
Analyze the disperse extent of residential points, grouping
these point following the distance which the fix center to each
points, statistic the frequency, draw the cumulate frequency
curve.
Calculate the residential density which in and out the drainage
basin, sequentially, contrast and analyze the integrated
influence of the basin’s significance to the region.
3.3 Statistic of highway data
Calculate highway curvature,
W curvature = highway route length/beeline distance of
jumping-off point to end-point
Calculate highway density:
e = E li/ A, in the expression, A represent region area.
Calculate highway integrality coefficient:
o = f / e2„ in the expression, f represent route frequency, f = n
/ A, n represent route numbers, A represent region area.
Calculate each crunodes’ adjacence extent, available arriving
possibility and minimum distance in the traffic net, analyze and
evaluate region traffic layout.
3.4 statistic of stream data
Through calculate of the river’s curvature, analysis river
develop phase.
Wcurvature =river route length/beeline distance of jumping-off
point to end-point.
Build none- billabong DEM, calculate conflux accumulation,
stream length, generate river net.
Research on geologic conformation base on river net
ichnography. Through the river net graphic, research on
hydrography, stream graphics or relief map, we can gained
topical river net characteristics, furthermore, we can confer the
geological conformation of the deserved zone.
4 Research and analysis on the spatial distribution
disciplinarians of drainage basin’ s important geographical
elements
Progress spatial analysis of basin’s important geographical
elements base on the statistics result, consider on spatial
classification analysis, buffer analysis, overlay analysis,
network analysis and etc facets.
4.1 About classification analysis on the distribution of
basin’s important geographical elements, we mainly consider
following facets: altitude, terrain characteristics and gradient
ingredients.
This paper analysis altitude classification according to
clustering theory, namely, as the classification series has fixed,
shall analogical data as the same series, whereas, share the
different series. This method may keeping data’s statistics
characteristics preferable;
This paper analysis terrain characteristics classification
according to China’s mountain and knap rank partition system;

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