You are using an outdated browser that does not fully support the intranda viewer.
As a result, some pages may not be displayed correctly.

We recommend you use one of the following browsers:

Full text

Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management
Damen, M. C. J.

jse studies re-
i object heights
ay of such heights
{ photocoordinates
p and repeat the
y of the jobs per-
apability with a
ed which on command
ly, Fig. 3) will
ally incrementing
ion, and photo X/Y
nanent record,
allows a permanent
tation parameters
i ground coordinates,
nit adapting the
alar printers.
ti Transfer Buttons
ater Interface)
type serial I/O
anning observation
otocoordinates may
anal, micro-, mini
face. Three push-
ck assembly to
aguish between con-
on of transfer.
IP switches on the
itches of computer
computers may have
ability. The
selections enables
dem. The VM is
1 Equipment (DTE).
quipment (DCE) may
M I/O board.
coordinate data to
rement System (RMS)
ansfer rate is as
ween VM and computer
PC/AT computer is
been structured
ols according to a
data structure is
erface to his own
le lie computer,
are has been im-
eive either cali-
om the VM and to
as "filename.cal"
or "filename.dat" respectively, on the RMS data disk.
Such disk typically holds as much as 320 kBytes in
as many as 420 individual files. Once stored, the
data are available for editing and display, conver
sion, analysis, printout, and plotting - all accord
ing to menu queries.
9 Data Editing, Conversion, Analysis and Display
The stored data are contained on disk in a compact
ASCII format. Editing allows the generation of
readable and displayable orientation parameters or
coordinate data for inspection and modification.
Typically noisy data may be smoothed and duplications
due to noise eliminated. Also, false data (due to
operator error) may be deleted or changed. To assist
in this effort planimetric X/Y data (contour lines)
or profile data may be graphically displayed on the
RMS CRT for editing purposes.
Transferred X/Y coordinates are in VM photocoor
dinates which may be converted into model and map
coordinates by using the calibration data file con
taining the parameters generated during relative and
absolute orientation. Such conversions use well
known principles (Albertz, 1980), (Moffitt, 1980),
(Manual of Photogrammetry, 1980).
Data analysis provides the measurement of areas
and perimeters of polygons, of path lengths of lin
ear features.
Internal RMS file transformation opens up the use
of RMS analysis routines of statistical analysis
(mean, variances, std. deviations, kurtosis, skew,
linear, multiple, and polynomial regression, linear/
logarithmic distributions, correlation analysis,
ANOVA, etc.).
10 Data Printout
The data converted into map coordinates may be print
ed out on the RMS printer for a permanent record
relating observation numbers, height and elevation
values with the corresponding X/Y map coordinates.
The RMS provides printout of all data and parameters
generated hy statistical analysis as well as displays
of graphs.
11 Data Plotting
Planimetric X/Y data (Y map coordinate versus X map
coordinate) as well as Ah/R (or h/R, i.e. height
or elevation versus the diagonal, where R=SQR (X*X+
Y*Y) profile data may be plotted on the RMS plotter
(DMP 40 or 50 series) at selectable scales and off
sets. The data are coded with pen-up and pen-down
information generated from the keyboard pushbuttons
at the time of acquisition of the data. Plots are
made on either paper or transparencies. They provide
overlays useful for map revision. Another profile
type plot may he plotting either height or elevation
relative to the path length showing the terrain trav
ersed by a moving vehicle, for example. 12
12 Conclusion
The combination of the VM module with the original
Bausch & Lomb Stereo Zoom Transfer Scope adds
measurement of the spot and object heights as well
as measurement of terrain elevations to the stereo
photograph to map transfer capability. The addition
of a printer and an external microcomputer provides
powerful systems capabilities to the Stereo ZTS at
low capital cost combined with ease of operation and
maintenance. The bulk of the additional capabilities
is in high level software for the external computer
rather than in hardware. Mating the Stereo ZTS VM
with the Resource Measurement System (RMS) makes the
RMS routines of data and statistical analysis avail
able to the Stereo ZTS. Such additional capabilities
provide for editing, display of data and feature
outlines on a CRT, conversion of photocoordinates
into map coordinates, computation of area, perimeter,
path lengths, statistical analysis data, hard copy
printout of X/Y/Z map coordinates, and plotting of
planimetric and topographic detail on map overlays
for map revision.
13 Acknowledgments
The contributions to the development of the Stereo
ZTS VM module by Robert T. Shone who developed the
basic concept and the mathematical foundations of
the instrument and Kelly P. Cole who wrote the
Assembly language software for the microprocessor
are acknowledged.
Albertz, J., W. Kreiling (eds.) 1980. Photogrammetric
Guide, Third Edition. Herbert Wichmann Verlag,
Burnside, C.D. 1979: Mapping from Aerial Photographs.
John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Hallert, B. 1960. Photogrammetry. McGraw Hill.
Manual of Photogrammetry 1980. Fourth Edition.
American Society of Photogrammetry.
McGivern, R.F., et al 1972. Planimetric map revision
with the Bausch & Lomb Zoom Transfer Scope. Pre
sented Paper ACSM/ASP Joint Annual Meeting,
Washington, D.C.
Moffitt F.H., E.M. Mikhail 1980. Photogrammetry.
Third Edition. Harper & Row Publishers.
Trinder, J.C. 1986. Precision of Stereoscopic
Height Measurements. Photogrammtric Engineering
and Remote Sensing. Vol. 52, No. 1. January 1986,
pp. 75-79.
von Gruber, 0. 1924. Einfache-und Doppelpunktein-
schaltung im Raume.
Walker, A.S. 1984. A Review of Map Revision by
Photogrammetry. Photogrammetric Record 11 (64):
Weir, M.J.C. 1981. An Assessment of Simple Plotting
Instruments for Resource Mapping. Paper presented
at Remote Sensing Society, December 1981.