Full text: Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management (Volume 1)

lief and curvature. Orthophotoimages preser 
ve all details of initial images and present 
data on the Earth's surface in corrected co 
ordinates at the same time. Being the end 
product of a chain of photographic transfo 
rmations orthophotoimages have a somewhat 
reduced resolution. Photogranmetry has ma 
de it possible to expand research on the 
use of orthophotoimages to obtain photomaps 
in many fields of geographical application 
orthophotoimages acquire paramount importan 
ce, particularly so in space-based thematic 
mapping of mountainous areas. 
Photogrammetry palys a vital part in cre 
ation and practical use of space photomaps 
which are complex cartographic-photogram- 
metric models (HobskobCKMM, 1983). The exact 
nature of photogrammetrie processing is de 
termined by at least the three main groups 
of factors depending on conditions of spa 
ce photography. The orbital movement of spa 
ceship itself refers to the first group. 
The second group is accounted for by tech 
nical characteristics of the space photo 
equipment: its resolution, dreal scope, mul- 
tispectrality etc. The third group of fac 
tors includes the geometric conditions of 
space photography (the height and the tra 
jectory of the orbit, the direction of the 
camera's optical axis at the moment of ex 
position) and the properties of the photo 
graphed object itself such as surface cur 
vature, relief etc. That is important not 
only for the application of space images in 
carthography but for setting up an environ 
mental monitoring as well. The carto-photo- 
grammetric processing of space images of 
the Earth is primarily defined by the orbi 
tal parameters which influence the scale, 
ovelapping and geometric properties of ima 
ges decisively. 
It should be noted that the space survey 
routes when mapped show as complicated cur 
ved paths. Being a function of orbital pa 
rameters they can't be changed once the or 
bits is given. That's why the route planning 
for mapping given geographical regions and 
route repetitiveness are of special impor 
tance in remote sensing. Thus there is no 
chance of plotting a space survey route in 
a latitudinal (east-west) direction as it 
is usually done on aerophotographic surveys. 
The value of the forward overlap of photo 
graphs is the most important parameter for 
the space image - based cartography. It de 
termines the choice of appropriate techni 
ques of cartophotogrammetric interpretati 
on of data obtained, including the building 
up of cartometric data bases - digital mo 
dels of natural objects. The value of the 
forward overlap p/° can be easily derived 
from the following analytic dependence for 
the time interval t between the two succes 
sive expositions: 
t= 2R / 
W \ 100% 
arc sin 
H + R 
where W is the speed of movement of the 
subsatellite point, R - mean radius of the 
Earth, p - half-angle of the camera's visi 
on field. It should be noted that the for 
mula doesn't take into account the effect 
of the Earth's rotation (НоваковСКИЙ, 1981). 
Also of importance area the angle of sloping 
of orbital stereophotoimage3. They to a gre 
at extent determine the choice of effective 
techniques of carto-photogrammetric proces 
sing and data interpretation. The latter ac 
quires particular importance when orthopho 
toimages used for making space photomaps are 
obtained b^ means of the analoguephotogram 
metric techniques. 
Let us illustrate our analysis of the se 
cond and third groups of factors influen 
cing the effectiveness of the remote sen 
sing data use in geographic cartography on 
the example of a specific orbital photo-ex 
periment. We shall study the photographs 
taken by the multispectral MKF-6 earners du 
ring the "3oyuz-22" flight (commander V.F. 
Bykovsky, flight engineer V.V.Aksyonov, 15- 
23 September,1976). As it was stated in se 
veral studies (Linsenbarth,1978, НоБЭКОВСКИЙ, 
1981, Proos,1982, Guske, Kluge,1982) the 
carto-photogrammetric peculiarities of the 
images taken present wide possibilities for 
their effective use in cartography (especi 
ally in compilation of orthophotoimages and 
photomaps) for geographical purposes. 
Let us illustrate certain practical aspec 
ts of such compilation in the instance of 
analysis and processing of orbital stereo 
scopic pair of photographs taken by the "3o- 
yuz-22". These images cover the south-eas 
tern part of the Fergana valley and north 
ern ridges of the Pamiro-Alay mountain sys- 
tem-Turkestan and Alay (near-Fergana physi 
co -geographic regions), the Alay valley and 
the Trans-Alay ridge (the Pamir region). Ex 
perimental works have been carried out on 
the two different analogue photogrammetric 
complexes of used to compile stereomaps: or 
thophotoprojector OFPD and stereograph SC-1 
(USSR) and Topocart - Orthophot-B (GDR). 
The techniques of producing space ortho 
photoimages and photomaps with this modern 
photogrammetrie equipment, the theoretical 
foundations of these techniques, merits and 
shortcomings of the equipment, itself, ana 
lysis of the accuracy of the results etc. 
are the subjects of special research (see, 
for example, Новаковский,1983, Балашов, 
Мантров, Решетов, Сигалов ,1984). within 
the framework of this paper we shall consi 
der the peculiarities of photogrammetric 
compilation of relief pictures including 
their presentation on a photomap. That would 
enable us to take up the problem of its di 
rect use fer compiling various morphometric 
maps for their further analysis. The drawing 
of relief by isolines (1:500 000 scale) on 
the Topocart device was conducted after the 
same scale orthophotoimage was obtained with 
orthophotoprojector Orthophot-B (Новаковский, 
1983). Diapositives enlarged approximately 
1.7 times from the 1:2 120 000 initial spa 
ce double-negatives were used. Drawing was 
made on plastic by the traditional stereo 
photo gramme trie technique. 
It's known that continuous isolines on 
1:500 000 topographic maps of mountainous 
areas are drawn with 100 m intervals, or 
some special symbols (cliffs etc.) are used. 
It should be noted that if the isolines i3 
0.1 mm gap between or les3 steep slopes 
they nay be merged at stretches no longer 
than 1 cm (according to the map's scale). 
Two or three intermediate isolines may be 
drawed between broadened isolines (worth 
500 m) with the rest c.f them interrupted. 
The relief map compilation has demonstrated 
that the above described technique of dra 
wing isolines with a 100 m interval are in 
expedient for the Pamiro-Alay area, becau 
se the isolines practically fully cover the 
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