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Modern trends of education in photogrammetry & remote sensing

and the application of photogrammetry to astro-geodetic measurements. He
also formulated the basic laws of error propagation in long strip triangu
lations. He was probably the first person to use vector terminology in
photogrammetry literature (Finsterwalder 1899, 1932).
Eduard Dolezal (1862-1955) of Vienna, Austria provided great inter
national driving spirit as he became the founding President of the Interna
tional Society for Photogrammetry in 1909. He also created the Interna
tional Archives of photogrammetry.
6.2.2 Pre World War II Base Developments
Although organized civil aviation in the early 1900s and the diri
gible airships (like Zeppelins and Parsivals) and balloons opened up new
explorations, there was a serious setback by the outbreak of World War I
in 1914. However, the period between the two World Wars (1918 to 1945)
witnessed tremendous developments in analog photogrammetry along with the
establishment of sound mathematical bases, and computational tools to
provide the necessary foundation for analytical photogrammetry.
During this period developments in photogrammetry were rather
sporadic and mainly limited to countries and individual organizations with
certain international interlocking involvements and implications. World
War II, at the end of this period, had a major effect on developments in
all countries. Nonetheless, within each European country postwar efforts
were somewhat continuation of previous developments. Destruction of manu
facturing and service facilities on the European continent had brought the
industry to a virtual standstill. However, during the postwar period the
centers of evolution were somewhat shifted to the North American continent
where a tremendous relatively high need in mapping and associated control
network existed with untapped scientific and industrial resources and
capital to support the growth.
The following would give the highlights of basic developments
during this period. One would notice seme developmental efforts started
during this period extended into the postwar years, as well as certain
disappointing events to slow down possible progress.
Reinhard Hugershoff (1882-1941), a professor at the Technical
University of Dresden, Germany introduced in 1921 the Autocartograph, the
first universal photogrammetric plotter and later at the Second ISP Con
gress in 1926, the Aerokartograph, a lighter instrument of the universal
type which incorporated capabilities of control extension and phototri
angulation. Here is an interesting story, which the author learned from
Prof. Schermerhorn during his stay at ITC, The Netherlands, indicating one
of many undesirable hurdles in the progress of analytical procedures. In
1920 the Dutch government contracted the German Luftbild GmbH (supported
by Zeiss) for mapping several islands and a stretch of the Netherlands
coast line. Hugershoff applied the pyramid method bv using oblique
photographs (Hugershoff 1919) and Luftbild applied a method developed
by Fischer (1921). The ground control being inadequate, both the results
were very unsatisfactory giving scale errors of upto 10 per cent and azi
muth errors upto 7 degrees. These obviously created furor in Europe