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Sharing and cooperation in geo-information technology
Aziz, T. Lukman

International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Vol. XXXII, Part 6. Bandung-lndonesia 1999
R. Venantius Hari Ginardi
Presented on ISPRS Mid-term Technical Commision VI Symposium, Bandung, 15-17 April 1999
Lecturer on ITS Surabaya (Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology - Surabaya), postgraduate student on Msc in Information
Tecnology for Natural Resources Management, SEAMEO-BIOTROP, Bogor-Indonesia
Processing multi-satellite imagery with different times of acquisition in image processing software is based on manual image
selection by the user. Its efficiency depends on how accurate the user notes the file content, image acquisition dates and file location.
Selecting image files based on spatial and temporal criteria is a process that helps the user to retrieve image file(s) more effectively.
This paper proposes a Temporal Data Manager Development for Remote Sensed data that enables image data query, based on spatial
and temporal information. This model can support development in the real time dynamic modelling using Satellite Imagery.
Early use of satellite imagery was mainly based on image
interpretation. Image processing tools , electromagnetics theory
and coordinate system were combined for this purpose. The
output was object figure or analysis such as land cover
classification, NDVI, clay ratio, shape detection, topographic
feature, etc.
other programming for the advanced user. In some remote
sensing software, this feature is called batch script or user script.
The scope of programming is dependent on supported language
and predefined object class. Much more customization can be
made if remote Sensing software supports C language or .lava
With a wider choice of sensor type and satellite source, more
variation of spatial and spectral satellite imagery becomes
available. It is also feasible to collect multisensor data and
multitemporal data for certain area. With multitemporal data for
specific area, more analysis and modelling based on change
detection can be performed, using the advantages of currently
cheaper and more detaileds satellite imagery.
Current image processing sofware use manual data retrieval. A
user should use his/her interpretaion of metadata to select which
image file to retrieve. The management of metadata is in the
form of text files that are organised depending on user. This
paper proposes to develop a Temporal data manager approach
for Remote Sensed Data, that enables features for data query
based on spatial and temporal information.
Basic information stored in remotely sensed data is spectral and
spatial information. Managing temporal information is an
additional possibilitiy for current remote sensing applications.
Although a time stamp for acquisition time information is
currently available in Remote Sensed Data, this information is
not a part of data processing. The image file format is highly
dependent on remote sensing application software. By
managing temporal information, some operation can be
performed for sequence of satellite imagery like : clouds
removal, mosaic, and other image correction using other image
Spatial information of image consist of information about 'what'
feature exist in image file and 'where' is object position relative
to other object. Spatial information in vector representation is
known as topology. Temporal dimension can be handled in a I
time type information format. There are two common time type 1
information format : event time and transaction time. Temporal 1
information systems can be sub-divided into four categories i
based on those two type (Worboys, 1994) I
No support for
transaction time
Support for
transaction time
No support for
event time
Support for event
Table 1. Temporal Dimension supported by system types
This paper focuses only on historic type of temporal dimension
to be applied in Remote Sensed Data since image file from
satellite imagery can be considered as an entity with a single \
time stamp. Coversely transaction time is usually used in
motion multimedia video that has duration time component.
Storing multi-temporal data for one spatial entity, for example
NDVI data from NOAA satellite for West Java on 7 consecutive
days, has 2 possibilities :
The Development of Temporal Database in GIS (called TGIS)
is more applicable since GIS and Database Systems are closely
related. Adapting a Temporal Database to Remote Sensing
application is very difficult because of its different file structure.
Remote Sensed data is similar to multimedia data. Since there is
existing research to model and retrieve Multimedia data using
temporal information, this approach can apply a temporal data
manager into current remote rensing application.
Some remote sensing software that is widely used supports user
defined application development that enables customization and
a. Store all 7 layers of temporal information in one dataset.
This approach is widely used because it is easy to perform
arithmetic modelling, but the independence of each
temporal information layer is lost because they are
bounded together.
b. Store each image layer data of temporal information
independently, and manage metadata for each dataset. This
approach has a benefit from its independence, but requires
manual user retrieval and metadata interpretation. The
temporal data handling used in this paper is based on this