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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

CIPA 2003 XIX th International Symposium, 30 September - 04 October, 2003, Antalya, Turkey
• Systems for 3D representations and animations of the
existing situation or of the buildings and other constructions
that have been distroyed or of mixed reality (Sticker et al
2001; Ogleby et al 2001)
• Virtual reality systems, with stereoscopic observation
available to the visitors by use of special glasses in a
specially structured room or of head mounted display
(HMD), thus having the illusion of moving in the 3D space
of the virtual environment (Hall et al 2001). An example of
a similar application which operates in Greece is at the
Museum of the Foundation of the Hellenic World
For the creation of the SIS, the 3D representations and the
augmented reality based systems, the detailed 3D
documentation of the present condition of the site, using the
combined application of the following is of great importance
(Addison 2001):
automated digital photogrammetric methods, using large-
scale aerial photos and terrestrial photos, for the production
of vector drawings, orthoimages or 3D models of the
archaeological site and the individual monuments or finds
field surveys, using GPS and conventional means (total
terrestrial laser scanners, both triangulation close range
scanners, for small objects and accuracy better than 0.5 mm,
and terrestrial LIDAR for large surfaces (facades of
monuments of the site, etc) The products can be 3D solid
models, profiles, texture mapping etc.
The next stage is the production of 3D representations from
archaeological plans and other information derived from ancient
texts and their combination with the recorded existing
geometrical information. The result, according to the editing
and the existing visualization tools, can be the production of
either videos with fly-over and walk-through the archaeological
site, or augmented reality systems and virtual reality
Predictably the near future will see a boom in the capabilities
offered for 3D animation and progress in virtual reality, with a
development of stereoscopic methods and a decrease of cost of
those systems. There are already screens available (by Sharp,
the DTI, the SeeReal, etc.) which allow the stereoscopic view
without a need for any special hardware for the users (i.e.
glasses) through two overlapping LCD where each one projects
the same issue from a different point of view varying about a 4-
5 degree angle or with layers of cylindrical lenses on a LCD
surface. Moreover there have been constructed “volumetric
screens”, such as the Perspecta Spatial 3D of Actuality, like a
transparent dome at the center of which there is a flat screen
which can be rotated at 730 turns per minute and on which 198
image frames of a resolution of 768 x 768 pixel, are projected
sequentially, at 24 fps, so that a 3D sense will be created during
the observation. 4
The proposed new museum concept was applied in a proposal
for the local archaeological museum of the Mycenae. The
construction of the museum, next to the archaeological site, was
finished in the year 1997. Until the year 1999 the exhibits found
during the excavations at the Acropolis of the Mycenae and the
surrounding area were kept into the museum’s store houses.
Mycenae, located 150km southwest of Athens, was the biggest
centre of Prehistoric Hellenism, and was inhabited since the
Neolithic era until the Roman times. It is one of the most
important archaeological sites in the world.
The Acropolis of the Mycenae was built on a low rocky hill.
The earliest most important constructions were made in the
middle of the 2 nd millennium B.C. and its fortifications, the
famous Cyclopean walls, not earlier than 1200 B.C. The
excavations at the site started since 1841 A.D. when the Lion
Gate, with the oldest sculpture worldwide, was found. In the
year 1876, H. Schliemann found the kings’ Graves, with unique
engraved gold and other finds, which are kept at the National
Archaeological Museum in Athens and in other museums. The
excavations continue today.
During the last years, at the Acropolis (3.2 hectares) and at the
surrounding archaeological site (60 hectares), there has been
done a systematic and detailed documentation by the Lab of
Photogrammetry of the National Technical University of
Athens, Greece. The documentation includes:
• 3D geometrical documentation, with line drawings, facades,
and orthomaps at various scales produced by digital
photogrammetric procedures and laser scanning
• 3D model of the most important parts of the archaeological
site, such as the palace, the kings’ Graves, the domed
• videos in predefined walk-through and flyovers (Figure 3),
using 3D Studio MAX and Adobe Premier software
• Spatial Information System, with multimedia data
(Ioannidis et al 2002), using the ARCV1EW of ESRI with
the extension 3D Analyst.
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Figure 3. Video fly-over frame of the 3D model of the