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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

CIPA 2003 XIX th International Symposium, 30 September - 04 October, 2003, Antalya, Turkey
In the survey stage, data related to general physical and
socio-economical aspects of the site are collected. During the
site survey, detailed data related to buildings within the study
area is collected (in architectural scale) through the
previously prepared survey forms. These forms include
detailed exterior and interior questionnaires for traditional,
new and/or monumental buildings. In order to find out the
existing social and economic structure of the inhabitants,
social questionnaires are applied, which cover questions
about the demographic features, income level, attitudes of the
inhabitants towards the site, historic buildings and
preservation, existing legal and administrative means, etc.
In the analyses and evaluation stage, data collected during
the survey stage is analyzed so as to visualize the
development and existing situation of the site and to define
its general characteristics, values and problems. Together
with the socio-economic aspects, classification and
evaluation of architectural, visual, historical, traditional and
present-day values of both the individual buildings and the
whole site lead to the determination of the features to be
protected. Besides, types, causes, reasons, effects and scales
of the problems to be treated are searched for in this stage.
Evaluation of physical, social and economic aspects, is
followed by the decision stage, in which policy for protection
and rehabilitation of the site is proposed. Proposals include
decisions related to future functions in consideration with the
existing trends; classification of building groups according to
the types and degree of intervention; principles of
intervention types for building groups; definition of the
scheme of the implementation according to the existing
administrative, legal and financial frameworks, etc.
Antakya, is a town where exist various traces of different
periods and civilizations. Integrity of these different traces as
well as complex transformations in time resulted in various
values and problems, which should be considered in
conservation and planning of the town. In order to come up
with proper conservation interventions and policies in such
complex cases, it is vital to analyze and evaluate complex
data concerning various aspects of the town.
Therefore, the aim of the Urban Conservation Project
prepared in Antakya has been defined as determination and
evaluation of values, potentials, conservation problems and
development of conservation decisions related to the selected
site. Differing from the previous projects, this semester
Geographic Information Systems(GIS) have been considered
to be the main tool for the project. There upon, Antakya
project followed the four similar stages of pre-survey, survey,
analyses/evaluation and decision stages as in any urban
conservation project, while the content and methodology
within these stages have differed according to the
requirements of GIS.
3.1 Pre-Survey Stage
During the preparation stage of Antakya Project, just like the
previous urban conservation projects, research related to the
historical development of the city has been carried out in
general through written documents, providing descriptive
data from earlier researchers, notes of travellers; and visual
data covering old and new photographs, engravings and
historical maps in order to understand the values of the
Zenginler Quarter within the history of Antakya. To
understand the contemporary situation of the city, 1/25000,
1/5000, 1/1000 scaled current maps are obtained beside
conservation plans showing the boundaries of urban sites and
conservation/planning decisions for each site.
For the collection of detailed data through the site survey,
survey forms, which have been categorized as traditional
house form and new building form are prepared. For the
traditional houses, three types of survey forms as the
courtyard, interior and exterior survey form are prepared.
Additionally, to understand the social structure of the users in
the site, an extensive social questionnaire form is prepared
including questions about the demographic features (i.e., age,
sex, education level) of households in each dwelling, their
occupation status, income levels, existence of social security,
from where/when and why they settled into this district, their
attitude towards the conservation activities, etc.
For the new buildings, architectural features of which are
different than the traditional houses, new building forms have
been prepared searching for data related to the construction
technique, number of storeys, number of dwellings and
overall condition of the buildings. Data related to monuments
and commercial buildings are decided to be collected through
sketches, photos and descriptions.
Format and content of the forms are defined considering that
GIS would be used in analyzing and evaluating the data that
would be collected through these forms. Accordingly, a
coding system is defined for each data entry so as to provide
terminological and syntactic standards. For this, all possible
data entries about the architectural/spatial features,
architectural elements, structural/material properties,
problems related to structural deformations, material
deteriorations and alteration/changes of the buildings are tried
to be predicted prior to the site survey. However, the system
defined has been flexible enough to add new codes in case of
coming across with new unpredicted data at the site.
3.2 Survey Stage
Survey stage has consisted of collection of data through the
site survey, design of the database, recording and structuring
of the collected spatial and attribute according to designed
Collection of Data: The selected study area in Zenginler
District, which consists of 223 parcels and 420 buildings, has
been defined as primary study area. All types of buildings in
this zone are documented in detail through the previously
prepared survey forms, and social questionnaires. The close
environment of the primary study area, which forms a buffer
zone, has been defined as the secondary study area. This zone
has been studied in less detail when compared with the
previous one, with the aim to provide data about the general
features of the surrounding tissue and reveal the interaction of
Zenginler District with the rest of the town. The data
concerning the secondary study area is collected by using
existing 1/1000 maps, without entering into the buildings.
Besides, in both zones, data related to the elements and
structure of the urban tissue, streets, building blocks and
building types are collected directly onto the existing 1/1000
Design of database and Structuring of the Documentation
System: Design of the database is the most important phase
in a GIS based method. Therefore, before the data entry to the
system, the database is designed considering the necessary
spatial data together with their spatial object classes and the
related attribute data. Thereupon, two parallel studies had to