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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

CIPA 2003 XIX th International Symposium, 30 September - 04 October, 2003, Antalya, Turkey
2.2 Analysis of the Man-made (Built) Environment
The analysis of the man-made / built environment includes two
sub-headings: (i) the physical analysis and (ii) the functional
(i) Physical Analysis:
a. Locational Analysis showing the location of the area
within the country / region / city / district
b. Historical Analysis including information on
physical, social, economical background and structure
of the concerned area; the historical development,
changes and growth of the area; when needed the
morphological development of the area.
c. Urban Pattern Analysis covering data about the form
of development; solid-void relations; street pattern;
urban spaces in terms of their quality, enclosure,
character, activities; elements of the area such as
paths, nodes, edges, landmarks and districts; the gap
sites and vacant plots of land, streets or spaces
requiring definition or redefinition. •
d. Architectural Evaluation documenting types of
architectural details, doors, windows, roof types,
building forms / heights, materials, etc.
e. Technical Infrastructure Analysis covers the analysis
of electricity, sewage system, water supply.
(ii) Functional Analysis:
a. Accessibility / Permeability / Traffic Circulation /
Transportation Analysis covers all modes of
movement in the area including pedestrian, car, bus,
etc. and the provision for each of these modes in
terms of circulation, parking and drop off points
b. Land use survey providing information about the
distribution of functions on the concerned area
concentrating on the ground and upper floor uses
2.3 Analysis of the Socio-economic Environment
This analysis provides data regarding the demographic structure
of the citizens, users of / within the area; the existing economic
activities and employment pattern; the existing laws and
regulations; the current local authority/government policies; the
official and non-official stakeholders in conservation activities.
All these analysis topics are dealt with varios techniques and
methods which are summarized in Table 1.
Beside these analyses through which the physical, functional
and socio-economic characteristics of the concerned area are
determined, the analysis should also provide the opportunity for
the identification of key constraints as well as potential
opportunities. This is a necessity for a sound basis for the
strategic conservation planning. For such identification, the
SWOT analysis method, which is a kind of prerequisite for
strategic planning should be applied to the area. Accordingly,
based on the data gathered from the above stated analyses
methods, the SWOT analysis method, which has recently
become popular in environmental studies, should be utilized for
conservation purposes. Since this method is specifically
developed for strategic planning and borrowed from another
discipline (management), the authors feel that it should be
specified in detail for further discussion on the analysis stage of
strategic conservation planning.
The SWOT analysis approach, a derivative of the Harvard
policy model (also referred to as the “design school model”;
Mintzberg 1994, pp. 36-39) seeks to address the question of
strategy formation from a two-fold perspective: from an
external appraisal (of threats and opportunities in an
environment) and from an internal appraisal (of strengths and
weaknesses in an organization).
However, this clear distinction between internal and external
conditions is more difficult to apply when assessing the
potential part of the physical world such as a city district, or a
historic urban quarter. Moughtin (1999) argues that, the
analysis in strict management terms could be applied to an
organization contemplating a particular intervention in the real
world estate but not necessarily in quite the same way for the
potential of real estate itself. According to Moughtin (1999),
many of the threats facing an inner city area or the opportunities
it presents could be considered to be internal to the physical
structure being investigated.
As again stated by Moughtin (1999), there is clearly an overlap
between all four analytical categories. A weakness, for example,
can be viewed in a more positive light as an opportunity, while
in some instances strength in one area when viewed from a
different perspective can appear as the source of weakness.
Nevertheless, the structure imposed by the listing and
categorizing of aspects and qualities of the project site, or the
working area / district, under these four broad headings does
assist in formulating possible strategies for intervention.
Within the regional development environment, the SWOT
instrument is intended to highlight those dominant and
determining factors, both within and outside of the territory in
question, which are likely to influence the success of the
project, as well as to produce relevant strategic guidelines by
linking the project to its environment. (European Commission
The completion of the analysis can also form the basis for
questioning the assumptions underlying project goals and
objectives. The SWOT analysis can, therefore, assist in the
clearer definition of the design brief and point the way to design
solutions (Moughtin, 1999).
The SWOT analysis, when used in a matrix form, as introduced
by Moughtin (1999), is a powerful tool for dissecting the
properties and potential of an urban area. If the examination of
the data is structured as shown in Table 2, then the strengths
and weaknesses of a number of the main aspects of life in a
study area can be addressed and analysed. The properties and
potential of the study site or city district can be examined under
a number of broad headings or factors - such as physical
properties and aesthetic qualities of the built environment in the
study area; the natural environment which would include fauna,
flora, air, water and pollution; and finally the social and
economic conditions in the area, including political and
administrative issues. Using such a matrix, it is possible to
examine the strengths and weaknesses of the study area in terms
of the factors listed in the matrix, as well as working
horizontally along a line of the matrix, to examine any
particular factor for its strength, weakness, opportunities for its
development and the potential threat it faces.