# Full text: The 3rd ISPRS Workshop on Dynamic and Multi-Dimensional GIS & the 10th Annual Conference of CPGIS on Geoinformatics

```ISPRS, Vol.34, Part 2W2, “Dynamic and Multi-Dimensional GIS”, Bangkok, May 23-25, 2001
265
ition changes,
lips, it can be
scene change is composed of spatial property changes and change as a whole has its own properties, as given in previous
spatial object changes, and at the same time spatial scene population change.
:e of entities of
:tion or occupy
laving identical
characteristics
ims useful to
jw entities by
), reproduction
itially identical
lodification of
a transmitter).
Contagion is a
Scene Change
l
▼ m
Object Change
1
▼ m
Property Change
(Geometrical Properties, Dimensionality)
Figure 1. Three levels of spatial changes
everal entities,
iy are splitting,
single entity is
>ize, location,
i geographical
)le entity and
h changes of
Geographical
3.1.1 Spatial Property Change. We argue that primary spatial
properties, in a visual sense, consist of location, distance,
direction, shape and size. Location may be absolute or relative
value of object in relation to a reference framework. Distance
may be absolute or relative value between an object and a
referent. Direction may be intrinsic, extrinsic or deictic. Size and
shape are overall properties of a set of basic spatial units.
Absolute size is measured with the number of atomic equivalent
spatial units. Relative size is a partial ordering relation between
an object and a referent. Shape is often described with contours
(convexity, concavity, the chain of vertices), component
approximation or compact ratios. Besides, in terms of
geometrical dimensionality, spatial objects fall into three groups,
point, line and area objects. Accordingly, we can obtain a set of
primary spatial property changes, i.e., {location change, distance
change, direction change, shape change, size change}, and
geometrical dimensionality changes (point change, line change,
area change). When geometrical dimensionality changes are
combined with location change in set of primary spatial property
changes, it turns out to be a set of moving object changes,
{moving point, moving line, moving region}, by O. Wolfson, R.H.
Gueting, et al (1997). Figure 2 shows a set of primary spatial
property changes for a region object.
998) proposed
and a set of
In conjunction
ids of change
ition between
ransition, and
single object
mtinuing non
reincarnation);
; operations of
mix); splitting
5 on a single
is of forming
amalgamation
>osite objects
;ting an object
jatial changes
atial property
i change and
i is application
e explained at
>rm, we define
object change
ial distribution
property and
emantics with
rete change,
ge are spatial
scene
o geometrical
lange. Spatial
entity. Spatial
Location change
Distance change
Direction change
Shape change
Size change
Figure 2. Primary spatial property changes
3.1.2 Spatial Object Change. Spatial object change is
associated with object identity. According to mapping
relationships between source objects and result objects, we
define six kinds of spatial object change (Figure 3):
1) 0:1 change, which indicates that an object is born.
Equivalent words have existence, appearance, creation,
birth, etc.
2) 1:0 change, which indicates that an object died. Equivalent
words have extinction, disappearance, destruction, death,
etc.
3) 1:1 change, which indicates that an object is transformed
into other object. If source object is the same as result
object, then the change is property change. Otherwise, the
change is metamorphosis in (Kathleen Hornsby and Max
J.Egenhofer, 1997, 1998).
4) 1:m (m>2) change, which indicates that source object is
divided into several result objects in the form. The source
object may be included in the set of result objects. If all
result objects are the same as source object in essence,
then the change is reproduction. If one of result objects is
the same as source object and others are different
essentially, then changes may be spawn, splinter or
production. If each result object is different from source
object, then changes may be division, dissolution or
secession.
5) m:1 (m>2) change, which indicates that multiple source
objects are aggregated into a result object in the form. If
result object is the same as one of source objects, then
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