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Mapping without the sun
Zhang, Jixian

2.2.3 Non-vegetation interpretation
The non-vegetation includes the residential area, bare field,
meadow, and plantation in the paper. We use the similar method
to the above paper, after careful analysis step by step, we set up
the decision criteria of the residential area in Daye area:
(TM4(40-80), TM5(70-100), TM4-TM3< 15),based on the
result of the map which is masked by the water body,
vegetation, and mine. We examine the residential area
interpretation with the residential area information on the
1/10000 relief map. The error of the interpretation result is less
than 15 percent. Based on the above result, the other land cover
decision criteria are set up as following: bare field (TM4>=12,
TM4>TM5), plantation (TM4<120,TM4>TM5) and meadow
(TM4 made.
2.2.4 Mine interpretation
Mine exploitation leads to inevitable groundsurface demolish
and disorder. The spectrum reflection character within the
visible light and near infrared range between the undisturbed
field and mine field is distinct. We can use the character to
determine the mine field by the remote sensing technique. We
use the supervised method combined the ironoxide index (most
of the mine field ironoxide >0.5) and NDVI (most of the mine
field NDVI <0, the maximum value is 0.2). Before the mine
interpretation, the water have been masked to avoid disturb.
The final decision criteria is ironoxide >0.4 and the
NDVI O.According to the above decision criteria, most of the
mine field are picked up. But much residential area is picked up
by error. In view of the fact, we pile up the all the residential
areas in the TM image (1986), 1/10000 relief map and the
above mine field interpretation. The reason we select the TM
image (1986) is that the 1/10000 relief map was protracted in
1989, which is close to the TM image (1986) acquired time. We
first select the residential area by error and the typical mine,
then we analysis the spectrum profile curve of the mine and
residential area. After many test, we find out the mine spectrum
value is larger than the residential area spectrum value in the
arithmetic formula as following:
2TM3-(TM2+TM4).According to the above analysis, we set up
a new decision criteria to pick up the mine:
2TM3-(TM2+TM4)>20.The final mine distributing map is
achieved. We examine the interpretation result by the field
investigation, the final map eliminate the scattered residential
area and keep the original mine integrity. The above method is
feasible in practice. Although the above method can pick up the
most of mine and eliminate the most of the residential area by
error in interpretation, there is a little residential area mix in the
final mine map. It is very hard to eliminate the residential area
(otherwise much mine will be eliminated) by the spectrums
relationship. If we intend to improve the decision of the
computer automatic interpretation, the higher spatial resolution
image will be necessary.
From the change detection results, it is observed that: The
water quality of the whole waters is still serious, although the
water quality has been improved a little in some areas. The
area of mild contaminated water increase 11.4 km 2 .Vegetation
shows degradation trend especially those areas close to the
mining areas, wood field and plantations decreased 135 km 2
and 192.5 km 2 respectively, and instead the areas of bare land
increased 128 km 2 based on the mine database and the remote
sensing interpretation. The reclamation percentage of the
abandoned mining is only 20%from 1986 to 2002. The
ecological environment in the study area is in degenerated and
may become worse unless the efficient management of
mining business and effective eco-environment protection in
mining area are carried out instantly.
The GIS is used to develop a spatially indexed database, spatial
analysis, and as a display tool for the visualization and
dissemination of the results of the model. The integration of
data in a GIS was valuable for effective analyses but also
exposed the necessity of accounting for spatial reference and
accuracy of data from different sources. GPS technology
proved very useful to increase the spatial accuracy of the
various data integrated in the GIS. Such systems can be used
in-house or deployed over the worldwide web for easy user
An increasing number of Earth observation satellites provide
data for monitoring mine exploitation status, each covering a
different portion of the electromagnetic spectrum at different
spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. Using the
multi-temporal data image approach described in this paper for
the monitoring of mine exploitation status is expected to result
in improved system reliability.
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