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Mapping without the sun
Zhang, Jixian

driven by application. Land use/land cover extensible
classification’s extension should follow the principles as below.
• User requirement principle
• Simplify and truly principle
• Focus and universal principle
• Interoperability and exchangeability principle
• Compatibility principle
• Extensible principle
• Stability principle.
4.2 Extension classification method
The definitions and domain values are intended to be
sufficiently generic to satisfy the land use/land cover
classification needs of various disciplines. However, the very
diversity of land use/land cover data means that generic
classification may not accommodate all applications. The paper
designs the rules and methods for defining and applying
additional classification to better serve special user needs.
4.2.1 Types of extensions
The following types of extensions shall be allowed:
• adding a new classification section or element;
• creating a new classification element code list to replace
the domain of an existing element that has “free text”
listed as its domain value;
• creating new classification elements code list (expanding a
code list);
• adding a new classification section or element;
• adding a new classification section or element entity;
• imposing a more stringent obligation on an existing
classification element;
• imposing a more restrictive domain on an existing
classification element.
4.2.2 Creating an extension
Prior to the creation of extended classification a careful review
of the existing classification within this 3 tier framework must
be performed to confirm that suitable classification section does
not already exist. For each extended classification section, sub
section, and/or element, the name, short name, definition,
obligation, condition, data type, and domain values shall be
4.2.3 Rules for creating an extension
• Extended classification sections or elements shall not be
used to change the name, definition or data type of an
existing section or element.
• Extended classification may be defined as sections and
may include extended and existing classification elements
as components.
• An extension is permitted to impose more stringent
obligation on existing classification elements than the
standard requires. (Classification elements that are optional
in the standard may be mandatory in an extension.)
• An extension is permitted to contain classification
elements with domains that are more restrictive than the
standard. (Classification elements whose domains have
free text in the standard may have a closed list of
appropriate values in the profile.)
• An extension is permitted to restrict the use of domain
values allowed by the classification framework. (If the
framework contains five values in the domain of an
existing classification element, the extension may specify
that its domain consists of three domain values. The
extension shall require that the user select a value from the
three domain values.)
• An extension is permitted to expand the number of values
in a code list.
• An extension shall not permit anything not allowed by the
classification framework.
4.2.4 Community profile
If the information to be added is extension, involving the
creation of many classification elements within a classification
section, specific to a discipline or application, co-ordination of
the proposed extension via user groups and creation of a
community profile is recommended.
4.2.5 Rules for creating a profile
• Before creating a profile, the user shall check registered
• A profile must adhere to the rules for defining an extension.
• A profile shall not change the name, definition, or data
type of a classification section or element.
• A profile shall include:
- the core classes collected for a application of land
use/land cover
- all mandatory classification elements in all mandatory
- all conditional classification elements in all
mandatory sections, if the it meets the condition required
by the classification element
- all mandatory classification elements in all
conditional sections, if the it meets the condition required
by the section
- all conditional classification elements in all
conditional sections, if the it meets the condition required
by the classification element and the section
• Relationships shall be defined so that a structure and
schema can be determined.
• A profile .shall be made available to anyone receiving
classification that was created according to that profile.
Land sue/land cover classification system is a basic research
area in LUCC. Facing to the problem of different land use/land
cover datasets can not be shared and integrated under different
classification systems, the paper proposed a kind of dynamic
land use/land cover classification framework based on ISO
19115 metadata extension model. This framework not only
contains the original classification’s structure, but also can
adapt to the variety of different discipline’s research
requirements dynamically. According to the requirements of
land use/land cover change research in coastal zone area, an
experiment application classification system is designed based
on the framework in this paper.
Geist H J ,Lambin E F. What drives tropical deforestation?
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