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Mapping without the sun
Zhang, Jixian

WANG Chong-chang a , WANG Li-li \ Zhang Li a , Zhang Kai-xuan a , Ma Zhen-li a , ZHANG Zhen-yong b
a School of Geomatics, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin, Liaoning, China, 123000
b Institute Exploring and Surveying of Fushun City, Fushun Liaoning, China, 113000
Cell-phone: 13704982336, E mail: wcc_clxwang@yahoo.com.cn
KEY WORDS: remote sensing, geometric rectification, image fusion, RMS, precision
QuickBird as one of the civil satellites holds the best resolution at present in the world, so our experimental research was made about
the geometry rectification of remote sensing images taken by QuickBird. The result of study indicates that the standard image taken
by QuickBird has favourable interior geometric precision, and the overall geometry rectification on images by polynomial
mathematic models (normally first order or second order) can achieve the precision of 0.6 pixels and 1:2000 scaled topographic
maps. Meanwhile, the result of study also indicates that the order numbers in polynomials are not the linear proportional relationship
to the rectificated precision in the geometric rectification with polynomials.
With the technical development in the fields of aerospace,
computer, sensor, global positioning system (GPS) and so on,
the modem remote sensing technology develops and perfects
gradually. The remote sensing images with high resolution,
high definition, rich information and the strong current trend
have already become the important one of data source to get
geo-spatial information for human being. The remote sensing
images with high resolution are no longer the military
appropriative, and its applications get more and more progress
in the commerce field during the past few years, and this marks
the resolution in data collection and revision for human being.
The traditional map data collection and revision usually spend
large amount of manpower and material resources, and the can
make use of the high resolution remote sensing images to gain
the data in only several days, so that the short period of ready
made maps and cycle of satellite remote sensing images makes
data capture, information processing, data revision and data
analysis easily. High resolution remote sensing images have
already become the more and more important data source of
surveying and mapping field.
The resolution and precision of remote sensing images decide
mapping scale of topographic map. The visual resolution of
paper map for people is about 0.07~0.1mm, in other words, the
mapping of topographic map demands that the resolution of
satellite remote sensing images usually need to reach less than
0.1mm, but the revision of topographic map also demands that
the resolution of remote sensing images need to 0.2mm in the
image. Along with the resolution of remote sensing satellites
become more and more high, surveyors are very interested in
applications of the remote sensing technology.
The resolution of QuickBird satellite is the most highest among
the commercial satellite in the world at present, but what degree
the plane precision can reach, it still need to verify by the
2.1 The brief introductions to QuickBird satellite
QuickBird . high resolution remote sensing satellites are
launched successfully by Digital Globe/ EarthWatch of USA on
October 18, 2001, whose resolution is the most highest one
among the commercially satellites in the world at present.
QuickBird remote sensing satellite images have much
remarkable advantages including spatial resolution (0.61m),
multispectral imaging (one panchromatic channel, four
multispectral channels), imaging width (16.5kmx 16.5km),
imaging angle (0-25°). The spacecraft parameters of QuickBird
are showed in Table 1.
Tabled QuickBird Characteristics
Launch Data
October 18, 2001
Launch Vehicle
Boeing delta II
Launch Location
Vandenberg air force base,
Orbit Altitude
450 km
Orbit Inclination
97.2 degree, sun-synchronous
7.1 km/second
Equator Crossing
10:30 a.m.(descending node)
Orbit Time
93.5 minutes
Revisit Time
1-3.5 days depending on latitude
Swath Width
16.5 km x 16.5 km at nadir
Metric Accuracy
23-meter horizontal (CE90%)
1 lbits
Pan: 61 cm (nadir) to 72 cm
MS: 2.44 m (nadir) to2.88 m
Pan: 450 - 900 nm Blue: 450
- 520 nm
Image Bands
Green: 520 - 600 nm Red: 630
- 690 nm
Near IR: 760 - 900 nm
Table 1. QuickBird Characteristics