Full text: Mapping without the sun

Yang ping ab , Tang Xinming ab , Wang Shengxiao c , Lei Bing b ,Wang Huibing b 
a School of Resource and Environment Science, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China - 
yangping_whu@163.com; b Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, 16 Beitaiping Road, Beijing 100039 - 
tang@casm.ac.cn ; c Shenhua Remote Sensing & Geo-Engineering Company LTD, Beijing 100085,China- 
shengxiao.w@gmail.com; leibing@casm.ac.cn; wanghb@casm.ac.cn 
KEY WORDS: Spatio-temporal Database, Classification of Spatio-temporal Process, Dynamic symbol base, Dynamic 
As efforts grow to develop spatio-temporal database systems and temporal geographic information systems that are capable of 
conveying how geographic phenomena change, it is important to associate the spatio-temporal process with a vivid representation. 
The paper propose a way for visualization base on dynamic symbol base, by which represent the spatio-temporal process in a more 
vivid and visually way. The paper proposes a new classification of spatio-temporal process, which builds a fundamental basis for 
the representation of dynamic phenomena. Dynamic visual variable of dynamic symbol for the display of changing spatial-temporal 
objectives will be discussed, a framework will be designed and implemented for the dynamic visualization. 
1.1 Dynamic Visualization and Animated Cartography 
Spatiotemporal data can be graphically represented in many 
ways. Vasiliev (1997) proposed a framework for graphic 
representation in static maps; Andrienko et al. (2003) attempted 
to do the same in an exploratory context, focusing on 
interactive and dynamic visualization of spatio-temporal data. 
Foundation for the visualization formalization was laid by 
Bertin in 1967 (see Bertin, 1974). His semiological framework 
has been further elaborated and extended. Among the main 
developments in the visual domain (see alsq Schlichtmann, 
1999) is research on effects of combinations of variables (e.g. 
Spiess, 1970). Morrison (1974) and MacEachren (1994a, 1995) 
have argued that the variables colour (including saturation) and 
texture are composites rather than primitives, and they defined 
the different components. 
Furthermore, new variables such as transparency and fuzziness 
or crispness of symbol edges have been distinguished and 
applied to represent characteristics of data and of metadata 
(MacEachren, 1994a; van der Wei et al., 1994). Adaptations to 
Bertin’s way of linking the variables to data have been 
suggested as well (e.g. Geels, 1987; MacEachren, 1995; 
Morrison, 1974). Kraak (1988) investigated depth cues, i.e. 
variables that can be used to simulate the third dimension on a 
2-D surface, while DiBiase et. al. (1992) and MacEachren 
(1994b) proposed dynamic variables for animated 
representations, together with suggestions for their use. 
Characteristics of geographic data can also be represented by 
signs or signals for modes of perception other than sight. 
Vasconcellos (1993) made an attempt to define tactile 
equivalents of Bertin’s graphic variables for visually disabled 
people. More recently, Griffin (1999) added kinaesthetic 
variables (e.g. resistance, friction) for application in fully 
immersive Virtual Environments.Barend Kobben described 
preliminary tests for evaluating the perceptual properties of 
dynamic visual variables. By the comparison of six kind 
dynamic visual variables, included moment, duration, 
frequency, order, rate of change and synchronization, they gave 
out that dynamic visual variables would only render favorable 
results in the use of cartographic animations. 
These developments show that the framework for the 
representation of geodata by perceptual variables, originally 
founded by Bertin, is a dynamic construct that is still evolving 
(Blok, 1998, Fairbaim et al., 2001; MacEachren, 2001). 
Important reasons for ongoing developments are increasing 
insight and progress in technological advancements. It is clear 
that the representation framework is not a fixed construct; it 
will be further extended and adapted. Blok developed the 
framework by integrating the former visual variables into four 
categories: moment of display, order, duration, frequency, gave 
out the relationships between the dynamic visualization 
variables, provided interactions options from a design 
perspective, made the utilization of the variables from a user 
perspective, and tested the effects of the using interactions of 
various dynamic visualization variables.( blok,2005). 
Such as we know, Amounts of work have been done on the 
evolving of the Bertin’s framework, but more should be done 
for further research. The goal of this paper is to propose a new 
framework which can visualize the spatio-temporal processes 
refer to each classification of temporal phenomena. By the 
utilizing of dynamic symbol base, a methodology for dynamic 
visualization of changing geographic data will be carried out. 
2.1 Taxonomy of STP ( Spatio-temporal process) 
Various models of change have been developed by 
mathematicians, geographers, philosophers, and computer 
scientists. Kathleen Hornsby presented an approach to spatio-

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