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Mapping without the sun
Zhang, Jixian

azimuth. This results in an image strip with a
continuous image quality (in flight direction).
Besides dual polarization StripMap images will
even be available as quadruple polarisation data,
which allows for a more complete statistical
description of the observed scene.
• ScanSAR with up to 16 m resolution (100 kmX
150 km standard scene size, extendable up to 4,200
km acquisition length) - Areas up to 420,000 km 2
anywhere on the globe can be covered in this image
mode within only one orbit. In the ScanSAR mode,
a swath width of 100 km (and even more) will be
achieved by scanning four adjacent ground sub
swaths with quasi-simultaneous beams, each with
different incidence angle.
The Basic Image Products generated from these three imaging
modes are:
■ Single Look Slant Range Complex (SSC) with
amplitude and phase information in slant range
■ Multilook Ground Range Detected (MGD)
corrected to WGS84 with an average terrain height
for slant range to ground range projection.
■ Geocoded Ellipsoid Corrected (GEC) corrected to
WGS84 with an average terrain height.
■ Enhanced Ellipsoid Corrected (EEC) corrected to
WGS84 with a digital elevation model (DEM).
These products are available as CEOS Level lb data sets, can
be absolutely radiometrically calibrated using the
accompanied information and can be delivered as either a
radiometrically or a spatially enhanced product. The spatial
extent corresponds to the area accessible by the TerraSAR-X
standard scene.
In addition to these basic products, a set of value-added
products is available, which are spatially oriented at the users
region of interest which can be larger than a satellite scene.
The Orthorectified Image (ORI sar ) is a geocoded image
with highly precise terrain correction included. All those
terrain distortions inherent in satellite imagery, particularly in
areas with rough terrain have been removed. The
orthorectification process uses high precision digital elevation
models, so that the pixel location accuracy in comparison to
EEC product is increased.
The orthorectified image is also available as an image mosaic
(MC SAR ) or a customer defined area of interest, i.e. a
subsetted image product which covers a predefined
geographical area.
Figure 1: OM SAR OrthoMap
Customized map sheet layout.
Radiometric correction and normalization methods improve
the orthoimage even more: The RAN sar product provides
calibrated backscattering values which are necessary for
quantitative analysis methods on the orthorectified images.
Ascending/Descending Merge (ADM sar ) Typical charac
teristics of SAR images are the radar shadows which are
usually visible and may not be a helpful attribute because they
obscure parts of the area under investigation. If the
combination of SAR images from ascending and descending
right looking orbits is used for image analysis, a reduction of
the impact of layover, and radar shadow effects can be
achieved. The ADM sar product includes this orbit merge.
Mosaics (MC SAR ) or Oriented Images (OI SAR ) are optionally
available as ADM sar . The ADM sar is of particular interest
for area with steep mountainous terrain, where shadow and
layover can disturb the analysis.
Figure 2: ADM sar Ascending/Descending Merge sample product
(middle) through combination of ascending (left) and
descending orbits (right).