Full text: Close-range imaging, long-range vision

Ralf Jantos', Thomas Luhmann‘, Jürgen Peipe”, Carl-Thomas Schneider” 
! University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Applied Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics, 
Ofener Str. 16, D-26121 Oldenburg, Germany - (luhmann, tecklenburg)@fh-oldenburg.de 
? University of Armed Forces Munich, Institute for Photogrammetry and Cartography, 
D-85577 Neubiberg, Germany - j-k.peipe(gUniBw-Muenchen.de 
? AICON 3D Systems, Celler Str. 32, D-38114 Braunschweig, Germany — ct.schneider@aicon.de 
Commission V, WG V/1 
KEY WORDS: Close range photogrammetry, Bundle adjustment, Calibration, Accuracy, Image quality, Color processing 
Digital camera backs to be connected with analogue photographic cameras have been developed for professional studio photography 
in addition to the conventional film-based procedure. The acquired high resolution digital images can be suitable for 
photogrammetric purposes too. Recently, the Kodak DCS Pro Back providing 4k x 4k pixel was introduced. The paper describes first 
results of the geometric and radiometric performance evaluation of the digital back adapted to a Mamiya 645 medium format camera 
High resolution area array CCD cameras enable high precision 
photogrammetric object reconstruction required for a number of 
close range photogrammetry applications, especially in 
industry. For this, still cameras such as Kodak DCS 460, 660, 
760 providing 3000 x 2000 pixel have been widely and 
successfully used. In addition, several manufacturers have been 
offering digital camera backs to be connected with small, 
medium or large format analogue photographic cameras (Peipe, 
1995). They allow for an interchange between film and digital 
data acquisition. All the existing equipment and accessories of 
analogue cameras can be utilised. These camera backs have 
been primarily developed for professional studio photography, 
but are of interest for photogrammetric tasks too. 
In 1996, the first 4000 x 4000 pixel camera back was 
introduced by the Dicomed company. Photogrammetric test 
measurements using the Dicomed BigShot connected to a 
Hasselblad camera body resulted in insufficient accuracy 
measures due to various stability problems (Peipe, 1997). Based 
on the Dicomed back, Rollei tried to design the Rollei Q16 as 
digital metric camera (Godding, 1998), but the attempt failed. 
At the Photokina 2000, Kodak launched the DCS Pro Back, a 
4k x 4k single shot camera back compatible with Hasselblad 
555 ELD and Mamiya RZ 67 (Schneider et al. (2002) present 
first photogrammetric investigations). Unlike other digital 
backs, the images can be taken untethered to a PC and stored on 
two 1 GB IBM Microdrives. Meanwhile, Kodak introduced 
new versions of the DCS Pro Back that enlarge the range of 
medium and large format cameras which the digital back can 
adapted to (Kodak, 2002), lately the DCS Pro Back 645M (for 
Mamiya 645) and 645C (for Contax 645). 
In this paper, the performance of the Kodak DCS Pro Back is 
evaluated by laboratory measurements including investigations 
into the sensor quality and the determination of the accuracy of 
photogrammetric 3-D object reconstruction achieved by 
connecting the back with a "small" medium format Mamiya 
645 camera body (45 mm x 60 mm image format). 
The handheld, lightweight (0.77 kg) portable (with on-board 
batteries) DCS Pro Back features a Kodak 16 megapixel sensor 
(4096 x 4096 pixel) measuring 36.7 mm x 36.7 mm. The pixel 
size amounts to 9 pm x 9 um. About every 1.6 - 2 seconds an 
image can be acquired - at ISO 100 to 400. The color LCD 
allows an immediate image quality check. A removable IR 
filter protects the images from infrared light. From a single shot 
a 36-bit image (12 bits per color) can be generated resulting in 
96 MB raw RGB data, compressed to image files of 12-22 MB. 
Fig. 1: Kodak DCS Pro Back 645M 
Fig. 2: Camera in use 
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