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Title
Proceedings, XXth congress

RS-techniques for Land use change detection — Case study of Istanbul
Gerhard Kemper‘, Murat Celikoyan?, Orhan Altan’, Goniil Toz?, Carlo Lavalle*, Luca Demicelli*

1) GGS, Kämmererstr.14, 67346 Speyer/Germany, kemper(àggs-speyer.de
2) ITU, 80626 Maslak/istanbul/Turkey, oaltan(@itu.edu.tr
3) European Commission, JRC, 21020 Ispra/Italy, carlo.lavalle@àjrc.it


KEY WORDS: Satellite Imagery, Land use change, urban dynamics, photogrammetry, Moland, GIS-Analyses, Scenarios
ABSTRACT: The detection of the Land use change of Istanbul within the last 50 years point out the dramatic change of this city. An
area of more than 3000 km? was analysed in the MOLAND-Project, where more than 60 land-use classes have been selected and
analysed for 4 years, the reference-year 2000, the year 1988, 1969 and 1945. The material was based on very high resolution satellite
imagery like Ikonos and IRS-D, on satellite photographs like KVR and KFA and small scaled military aerial photographs. Some key-
actions have been detected, so the built up of the Bosporus-Bridges, which made the rapid grow jump also to the Asiatic side of the
city. We describe the technical work in combination with ancillary data, especially with historical ones. Also data like census-data
have been integrated into the analyses to enable the development of a differentiated scenario. We aim to point out the possibility of
RS-data in combination with other relevant data to reach more detailed understanding of the grow of mega cities. Socio-economical,
political, morphological and many other aspects are responsible for this specific development.
To undertake temporal analyses of land-use change in urban and suburban agglomerations in relation to the cities connection
(corridors) is the objective of MOLAND (Monitoring Land-Use Dynamics). It follows the MURBANDY (Monitoring Urban
Dynamics) initiative but moreover MOLAND is interested in cities on traffic-nod-points which play an important role as corridors.
As a gate to the Asian continent and a traditional trade place, Istanbul is a most important city. Istanbul will be compared with 25
European cities, which have been analysed under MURBANDY. The spatial distribution and the quality of the environment in urban
and in rural areas surrounding the cities are the main subjects of the investigation conducted within the project, which is based on 3
packages: change detection (CHANGE), understanding (UNDERSTAND) and development of scenarios (FORECAST).
L BACKGROUND o to produce quantitative information on the evolution of
Throughout the world processes related to urbanisation, land use and transport networks, from 1950 onwards, in
development of transport infrastructures, industrial study areas subject to infrastructural changes (e.g.
constructions, and other built-up areas, are severely influencing urbanisation, construction of transport links);
the environment, and are modifying the landscape. The o to develop methods for performing a harmonised analysis
importance of sustainable urban development at the European of historical trends, including socio-economic aspects,
and international level is reflected by the various policies and impact of legislation, landscape fragmentation, etc.;
initiatives that address this topic. Within the above context, a o to develop models for the harmonised simulation of future
project was initiated by the Directorate General Joint Research European-wide scenarios, at local and regional scales.
Centre (DG JRC) of the European Commission. MOLAND was
initiated in 1998 (under the name of MURBANDY - The implementation of MOLAND is divided into three phases.
Monitoring Urban Dynamics), in support of the preparation of Central to the methodology is the creation of detailed GIS
the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP). databases of land use types and transport networks for the study
MURBANDY aimed to monitor the development of urban areas areas, at a mapping scale of 1:25.000. The databases are
and to draw some conclusions on trends at a European scale. typically for 4 dates, early 50s, late 60s, 80s, late 90s. For each
This work was extended (under MOLAND) to the computation study area the reference land use database is created from
of indicators (following the requirements of EUROSTAT, interpretation of satellite imagery. The three historical databases
European Environment Agency and others), and to the are created from the available data (aerial photographs, military
assessment of the impact of anthropogenic stress factors (with a satellite images, etc.) for these dates. MOLAND adopts the
focus on expanding settlements, transport and tourism) in and CORINE land cover legend, with a fourth, more detailed level
around urban areas, and along development corridors. The of nomenclature needed for the scale used.
primary role of the MOLAND Project is to provide scientific

and technical support to the European Commission’s various
Directorates-General (DGs), services, and associated bodies,
which are responsible for the conception, development,
implementation, and monitoring of EU policies related to urban
and regional development. At present, the main EU policy areas
that are supported by MOLAND include the following: the 6™
EC Environment Action Programme’s proposed Thematic
Strategy on the Urban Environment, for DG ENV
(Environment); indicators for Sustainable Urban and Regional
Development, for DG ENV, EUROSTAT, and the EEA
(European Environment Agency); the ESDP, for DG REGIO
(Regional Policy); Impacts of the Structural and Cohesion
Funds, for DG ENV; Strategic Environmental Assessment
(SEA) of the Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T), for
DG TREN (Energy and Transport).
From technical point of view, MOLAND has three specific
aims:
In the second phase of MOLAND, various spatial analysis
techniques are applied to the land use and transport databases,
and associated socio-economic data, in order to compute
different types of indicators of urban and regional development.
These indicators are used to assess and compare the study areas
in terms of their progress towards sustainable development.
Analysis of the fragmentation of the landscapes is also carried
out. The land use and transport databases have also been used
for a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of the impact of
transport links on the landscape.
In the third phase of MOLAND, an urban growth model is
applied. This model, which is based on spatial dynamics
systems, takes as input the MOLAND land use and transport
databases, as well as maps of land use suitability and zoning
status, and simulates future land use development under the
input of urban and regional planning and policy parameters.
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