Full text: Technical Commission VIII (B8)

International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXIX-B8, 2012 
XXII ISPRS Congress, 25 August — 01 September 2012, Melbourne, Australia 
2.1 Landform classification 
Landform classification data is vector data of Land Condition 
Map “Sendai” and “Iwanuma” produced by GSI. As there is no 
data of Land Condition Map of *Kakuda" area, the authors had 
produced landform classification data of “Kakuda” area by the 
interpretation of aerial photo with scale of 1/10,000 taken by 
GSI in 1961. Landform classification was divided into fourteen 
categories, such as mountain slope, unstable slope, terrace or 
table land, talus, alluvial fan, natural levee or sand dune or sand 
bar, dent or shallow valley, valley plain or flood plain, coastal 
plain or delta, back marsh, former river bed, frequently flooded 
area, water and artificial deformed area. 
2.2 DEMs 
DEMs data is 5 meters grid data measured by airborne laser 
survey (LiDAR) after earthquake. These data was combined the 
data measured by Miyagi Prefecture in March or April and by 
GSI in May or June, 2011. 
2.3 Land use 
Land use data is 100 meter grid data of National Land 
Information Data by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, 
Transportation and Tourism (MLIT). This data is divided into 
eleven categories, such as paddy, other farmland, forest, 
wasteland, building area, arterial traffic area, land for other use, 
rivers or lakes, seashore, seawater and golf course. 
2.4 Tsunami damage classification 
The authors divided tsunami damage into three categories by 
interpreting aerial photos; first rank (Rank 1) is the completely 
destroyed area where almost wooden buildings were lost, 
second rank (Rank 2) is the heavily damaged area where a large 
number of houses were destroyed by the tsunami, and third rank 
(Rank 3) is the flooded only area where houses were less 
destroyed. Figure 1 is tsunami damage classification map of a 
part of Sendai Plain where close to the Sendai Airport. 
2.5 Tsunami depth measured by MMS 
The tsunami flooded depth was measured by 
photogrammetric method using digital image taken by Mobile 
Mapping System (MMS). 
Outline of MMS is shown in Figure 2. MMS obtains 360 
degree panoramic image by cameras on a vehicle. IP-S2 by 
Topcon Corporation was used for this study, and the system is 
composed of 6 cameras, GPS antenna and IMU (inertial 
measurement unit). GPS antenna and IMU measure positions 
and tilts of cameras. Cameras can obtain image data at rates of 
16 frames / second. Using this system, we obtain the image data 
with three dimensional location information. To select the 
position of tsunami flooded marks and ground surface in this 
image, it is possible to measure the tsunami flooded depth by 
calculation of image data (Figure 3). 
Tsunami damage 
0 250 500 1,000 m 
Figure 1. Tsunami damage map of Sendai Plain 
Figure 2. Outline of Mobile Mapping System (MMS) 
Figure 3. Measurement of tsunami flooded depth by MMS 
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