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Proceedings of Symposium on Remote Sensing and Photo Interpretation

- 528 -
In the field of cartography and geodesy, in particular, space
technology contributes to the solution of the following problems:
- making and revision of topographical, geographical and
thematic maps;
- plotting of geodetic networks and establishment of geodetic
ties with remote regions;
- general study of the Earth gravitational field and figure of
the geoid;
For making and revision of maps with the help of Earth
satellites, the image of the Earth surface must be obtained on the necessary
scale; it must have both the needed accuracy and informative capacity. At
present, various methods of obtaining images of such kind are already known
and have found application; however, in present conditions the most accurate
information for topographical mapping can be obtained with the help of
Application of the aforesaid methods for space research is
characterized by certain peculiar features. Although modern aerial cameras
are fit for space surveying, utilization of a carrier based on the ballistic
principle of flight advances some specific requirements as to their design.
The said requirements are caused by limitations in weight and in energy
supply, by weightlessness, and some peculiar features of control of the
The choice of the optimal parameters of the photographic system
is generally executed in two steps. At first, a system is designed that can
secure the desired resolution on the ground at a minimum focal length. Then
a real optical system is chosen the parameters of which are near those of the
calculated system. The conditions in which photographic surveying should be
executed (brightness, exposure, illumination, photographic films and filters)
and the method of chemical-photographical treatment (processing) are deter
mined by experiment.
Thus, when realizing a photographic experiment on board the
orbital station "Salut", the choice of parameters of the instruments and
determination of exposure were made for average conditions of photography
where the spectral albedos of two chosen objects - one of which the brightest,
the other - the darkest - were considered constant as to their spectre and
equal to 0,1 and 0,05 respectively. The optical thickness and indicatrix of
dispersion were taken in correspondence with an average transparency of the
atmosphere. The sensitive material was chosen on the basis of the results of
investigations of image-building qualities of the photographic system.
The parameters of the instruments for star photography were
chosen proceeding from the necessity of getting a minimum of 3 stars on an
image. At the same time the possibility was provided for the cosmonauts to
change regulation of the star camera which permitted one to use it for taking
60 sec
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