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Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management
Damen, M. C. J.

Symposium on Remote Sensing for Resources Development and Environmental Management / Enschede / August 1986
Aerial photography photointerpretation system
University Edvard Kardelj, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia
Geodetski zavod SRS, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia
ABSTRACT: Paper deals with the technology and organisation of cyclic aerial survey being operational for last
ten years in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. It is shown how the aerial photography is used for different purposes for
human environment planning. At the end the advantages of the system are given: the fact that the system is
completely independent and gives the relevant informations about the human environment status.
Slovenia is a small tiny region on the suny side of
Alps, having appr. 20 000 sq. km and being one of
the federal republics in Yugoslavia. It is the most
developed territory of Yugoslavia also because of
its geographical position between west Europe, Me-
diterranian sea and Middle East. Ondulated terrain
has dictated different types of migration; industri
al centres are concentrated in the valeys and plane
areas whereas fast industrialisation and individual
residential buildings have caused occupation of the
rural environment. Answer to these anomalies was mo
re and more organised human environment planning be
ing firstly unitiated in the settlement area and fo
llowed by the special emphasise on protection of a-
gricultural areas.
Such an development has required numerous data on
human environment specialy about its physical ele
ments. On this way the 2000 maps in scale 1 : 5000
have been elaborated, covering the entire territory
of Slovenia. Second phase of cyclic aerial survey
was realised in 1980 and 1981. Before third phase
in 1985 the basic concepts of cyclic aerial survey
were changed which caused its transformation from
periodicaly repeating action to qualitative perma
nent activity.
In order to form the cyclic aerial survey in such
a way where all potential users would cooperate, nu
merous condition had to be fullfiled. The most im
portant was increasing conflict situation between
agricultural and urban sectors which caused inten
sive activities in human environment planning. Be
sides this also systematic 10 years work on photo-
interpretation gave the basic knowledge for diffe
rent users, who cooperate financialy and professio
nal without conflicting their own interests.
Ibis contribution would like to show the present
status of the use of aerial photographs in the hu
man environment planning in Slovenia, Yugoslavia.
As the unique system of cyclic aerial survey is u-
sed to obtain the basic spatial informations the
special consideration is given to different parts
of the system. As an application of its use the
technology for creation of the agricultural plan is
given into detail.
In the last ten years very intensive activities
have been on in Yugoslavia for the society planning.
New law regulations have integrated the planning of
human environment as the part of the society plann
ing which had the influence on the five-years plans.
Practicaly this influence has been in the form of
analogue data base for terrain coverage (vegetation,
urban, rural, water). Since the cadastral data have
been out of date the aerial photography from cyclic
aerial survey were used in the process of photointer
pretation in order to interpret the necessary infor
mation. The basic map scale was 1 : 25 000 which was
used mainly for administration purposes. (Figure 1).
The spatial limitations among different sectors (a-
griculture, forestry, water, rural and urban) needed
for more detailed presentation. There fore it was de
cided to use the basic topographic plan in scale
1 : 5000 as the carrier for interpreted informations
together with the cadastral boundaries data. This ba
sic presentation has been used to make delineations
among mentioned sectors, playing role in the human
environment planing.
Further on the cyclic aerial survey with its orga
nisational and proffessional aspects and technology
for creation of an agricultural plan will be given
in the detail.
Cyclic aerial survey
The cyclic aerial survey is in Slovenia formed in
such a way that gives complete basic data on status
of human environment. The methods of using the aeri
al photographs are mainly analogue and are widely
known to the users.
Geodetic service carries the most important part
of the cyclic aerial survey - revision of data for
basic topographic maps in the scale 1 : 5000 and for
the renovation of the land cadastre. It must be po
inted out that basic topographic map is used for
showing the planning components for the entire teri-
tory of republic Slovenia.
Forestry includes the cyclic aerial survey into
registration process of development and exploatati-
on of wood. The cycle is 10 years and the conventi
onal photography is combined with some infra-red
techniques for air polution detection. For the opti
mal use of the aerial survey a systematic technical
specifications are defined in a great accordance with
world known specifications: territories of aerial sur
vey according to scales, cycles, time of the years
and techniques.
Photographic material for aerial photography is ma
inly panchromatic in scale 1 : 17 500 and 1 : 10 000
(Fig. 2). The choice of the scales has been influen
ced by the raster of the map 1 : 5000 (2.5 x 3.0 km)
covering the entire Slovenia. Strips are 3 km wide
which enables the restitution for 1 map out of 1 ste
reomodel (focal lenght of the camera is 150 mm). Due
to the terrain configuration the photo scale varies