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Proceedings of the Symposium on Progress in Data Processing and Analysis

Off-Line and On-Line Applications of Macro Photogrammetry
Karsten Jacobsen
University of Hannover
Nienburger Str. 1
D3000 Hannover
FR Germany
1. Abstract
A precise three-dimensional investigation of very small objects is possible by macro
photogrammetry. The fine structure of human bones, metalic surfaces, tools and
workpieces have been determined with an accuracy of few microns in the object
space. Images have been made with a stereo-microscop, a Rolleiflex metric 6006
and 3003 with macro lenses and macro converter and video cameras with macro
lenses. The data aquisition was made with analytical and digital stereo plotters and
directly based on digital images by on-line computation in a PC.
The small view angles in macro applications are causing special geometric problems.
Based on a bundle solution with a three-dimensional control pattern the exterior
and the interior orientation can be determined and directly be used in analytical and
digital stereo plotters. The traditional method of relative and absolute orientation will
not lead to sufficiant results in the case of very small view angles, so the handling
of the images in the plotters and the on-line computations had to be based on a
bundle solution.
2. Introduction
The human bone is not a solid dead material. It is a three-dimensional combination
of sticks and plates which will be permanently reduced and formed again. The
geometric character of this is important for the knowledge about the stability and
the grown old. Research in this field has been limited to measures in cuts and
stereoscopic views with stereo microscopes. By this reason a photogrammetric
evaluation of the stereo pairs from stereo microscope has been made. The
geometric instability of the microscopes has lead to the use of reseau cameras.
By the same method the structure of metalic surfaces has been determined as
preparation for a planed on-line solution based on video cameras. A similar problem
is existing with the on-line check of tools and work pieces.
3. Stereo Microscope
The geometric conditions of stereo microscopes are quite different to usual metric
cameras. No information about the geometry or a calibration certificate has been
available. An investigation of the stability, check for reproduction of geometric
conditions and calibration was necessary.
In close range applications the camera calibration usually is made with tilted views
to a flat test field. This is not possible in the case of a stereo microscope. The