You are using an outdated browser that does not fully support the intranda viewer.
As a result, some pages may not be displayed correctly.

We recommend you use one of the following browsers:

Full text

Sharing and cooperation in geo-information technology
Aziz, T. Lukman

facilitate the interpretation. Image enhancement and
classification are techniques applied to facilitate the extraction
of information by the interpreter, who is to be considered as a
qualified professional in his own field.
That professional field has usually to do with observing the
earth's surface, or some aspect of it, and he will be after
information with a spatial component: geo-based information
A bit more specific: the interpreter must be capable in his own
field of knowledge, and have enough professional level of
reference to serve him in the interpretation of remotely sensed
data for (geo-based) information extraction.
These fields of knowledge can be categorized as the
earth-observing sciences in the widest sense. Examples:
Geography, geology, geomorphology, vegetation mapping,
forest survey, land use survey, water resources survey ....
* Metric Information
is extracted in a different way from the data: exact positioning
and elevation information can be extracted from modern remote
sensing data by cartographers, photogrammetrists, geodesists.
The purpose : mapmaking in the sense of topographic and
contour maps. Much of this information was and still is
extracted from aerial photography.
With the availability of the Thematic Mapper, SPOT, IRS 1-C
and ID, ERS, JERS, Radarsat, it becomes possible to extract
useful spatial information in this context from satellite remote
sensing data. Especially important in this context: the new
possibilities for rapid and accurate map updating.
Metric information based on remotely sensed data serves
mapping and mapmaking in the widest sense.
Professionals involved here include surveyors, cartographers,
* The use of this information
is not in all cases restricted to the interpreter or mapmaker.
Planning and decisionmaking at the local, regional and national
level, ideally should be based on solid information relevant to
the.(development) issues at hand.
Decisionmaking is a complex affair and not really under
discussion here.
Still some points should be clear:
Decisionmaking has two phases: a technical phase and a
political phase.
Technical decisions usually are taken on the basis of
information supplied, but within the constraints of the political
Political decisions are mostly not taken on basis of
information supplied from the data collection through the
planning level, but on political and/or economical
Such decisions are often taken a priori, leaving the planning
level with the task of implementing them.
Satellite remote sensing is an extremely powerful tool for the
set-up and updating of data-bases from which such
geo-information can be extracted.
This identifies planners and decisionmakers at the local,
regional and national levels as potentially important end
There is usually an underlying echelon of officials that feeds
them with information on which action can be based.
This level, of (senior) technical advisers, departmental
directors, even policy advisers, is in fact a more important
target group for education in remote sensing utilization. It is the
departmental top echelon, which is not directly affected by
political change.
This category has the imago of busy officials (bureaucrats?),
and may not be expected to extract information themselves, but
act on aggregated information presented to them by the level of
technical experts and professionals in the respective fields.
A function of the top echelon is to link the information
available, to development objectives which may be technical
or political of origin. This is a most complex affair, and this
problem is by no means solved, although it has been recognized
for many years.
A task thus becomes, to educate planners and their senior
advisers not only to apply remote sensing data and derived
information, but also to identify their information requirements
in relation to the technical or development questions that
confront them.
These questions often revolve around resources inventories,
assessment and evaluation, optimization in resource utilization,
infrastructure, environmental considerations etc. As technology
progresses, additional questions may be addressed, such as the
monitoring of processes and activities (natural or man-made).
A combination of remote sensing observation techniques may
lead to a capability for natural hazard forecasting and warning,
later even to the monitoring of events and coordination of relief
The environment, environmental protection and environmental
management, are gaining increased prominence as subjects of
concern with reference to the effect of the use of resources and
Natural hazards, underlying causes for natural disasters,
likewise become more evident as causes of concern. Here, too,
planners and decisionmakers play a decisive role in how the
problems are confronted (or not), and remote sensing is a
powerful tool to provide them with a database on which to base
their decisions.
Geo-information systems of various kinds are under rapid
development to take their role as supports of decisionmaking in