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New perspectives to save cultural heritage
Altan, M. Orhan

A.Alkis 3 , E.G.Arun 3 , H.Demirel a, ,R.D.Diippe\ C.Gerstenecker b , M.Hovenbitzer c
a Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey (alkis, gorun, hdemirel )@yildiz.edu.tr
b Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany, dueppe@gauss.phgr.verm.tu-darmstadt.de, gerstenecker@geod.tu-darmstadt.de
c Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy, Germany, Hovenbitzer@ifag.de
CIPA XIX ,h International Symposium Anatalya 2003
KEY WORDS: Photogrammetry,Monitoring,Deformations,Documentation,Laserscanning,Visualization
Scientists of Yildiz Technical University Istanbul and Darmstadt University of Technology have coorperated in order to collect and
analyse different informations about the Kücük Aya Sofya Mosque (constructed between 527-536 A.D.) in Istanbul, one of the
oldest and most important still existing buildings of byzantine era. The extraordinary beauty of the monument will be documented
with a computer generated panoramic image of the indoors octagon. The great impact of the photographs to document how the
building changed in time is shown by some examples. Furthermore the inclinations of the eight polygonal pillars in the central
octagon and of the outer wall of the apse are determinated by photogrammetric methods. These inclinations are very large and
generally very old, they might exist since the beginning of the building in the byzantine times of Justinian and his empress
Theodora. But also present day deformations were found: there are a lot of cracks in the building. Some of them are controlled over
a period of more than 20 years, especially the vertical cracks on the north-west and south-east corners of the dome. As a
consequence the geometry of the whole dome was checked with photogrammetric methods, starting 1979 and ending 2002. The
results of the deformation analysis are shown and discussed. In 2002 an in-and outdoor laser-scan of the complete building was
performed. The results and further investigations are discussed. Additionally some of the damages resulting from the Izmit 1999
earthquake (magnitude 7,4) are documented.
Wissenschaftler der Yildiz Technischen Universität Istanbul und der Technischen Universität Darmstadt haben bei der Untersuchung
der Kleinen Hagia Sophia (gebaut 527-536 A.D.) in Istanbul, einem der ältesten und bedeutendsten noch existierenden Gebäude aus
der frühbyzantinischen Zeit, zusammengearbeitet. Die außerordentliche Schönheit des Gebäudes wird zu Beginn durch die
Wiedergabe einer gerechneten Panoramaaufnahme des inneren oktagonalen Zentralraumes aufgezeigt. Dann wird an einigen
Beispielen die Bedeutung vorhandener Photos für die Dokumentation des sich verändernden Geschehens aufgezeigt. Die
Schiefstellungen der Pfeiler und einer Apsisaußenwand werden nachgewiesen, wobei die These vertreten wird, dass diese
Schiefstellungen älteren Ursprungs sind, d.h. eventuell noch aus den Zeiten von Justinian und Theodora stammen. Aber auch neuere
Deformationen werden präsentiert: einige der vielen vorhandenen Risse des Baus konnten photogrammetrisch über den Zeitraum
1979-2002 beobachtet werden, gleiches gilt für die das zentrale Oktagon abschließende Kuppel. Die Ergebnisse werden diskutiert.
Im Jahre 2002 wurde eine komplette Laserabtastung des Gebäudes durchgeführt, Ergebnisse und weitere notwendige Arbeiten
werden besprochen. Zum Abschluß werden einige Schäden dokumentiert, welche durch das Izmit-Erdbeben (1999, Stärke 7,4 auf
der Richterskala) neu entstanden sind.
At Istanbul the church of Sergius-and-Bacchus (527-536 A.D.)
or Little Hagia Sophia Mosque (Kiiciik Aya Sofya Mosque =
KAM ) as it is called after the fall of Constantinople in the year
1453 and after changing the church into a mosque (1504)
belongs to the oldest and most important still existing buildings
of early byzantine era. The KAM was commissioned by the
roman Emperor Justinian and his Empress Theodora as an
annex to the existing Peter-and-Paul-Basilica inside the palace
of Hormisdas, the KAM survived in most of its parts, the Peter-
and-Paul-Basilica doesn’t exist today any more. In spite of all
its historical importance KAM is in a very poor condition
today; we are convinced, that there is a real risk for the further
existing of the building if nothing will be done for its
restoration. Therefore the World Monuments Funds
(www.wmf.org) has placed KAM into its list 2002 of the 100
most endangered sites all over the world. Specialists of the
Yildiz Technical University / Istanbul have worked at KAM the
last years to collect informations in different disciplines [2,3].
In this context a mixed group of scientists of Yildiz and the
Technical University Darmstadt / Germany have performed
extensive geodetic and photogrammetric observations including
a complete laserscan of KAM. The photogrammetric and
geodetic measurements have started in 1979 and have been
repeated several times till 2002. Therefore the team was able to
investigate different problems as for example the fundamental
question of the quality and quantity of the deformations which
may endanger the near future of the KAM. To understand some
of the problems, let’s have a first look at KAM: an octagonal