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Title
Proceedings of the Symposium on Global and Environmental Monitoring

753
Where for classification purposes discoloura
tion i3 taken into account in addition to de
foliation, the following system is used:
Defoliation class Discolouration class
12 3
Resulting damage class
0 0 12
1 12 2
2 2 3 3
3 3 3 3
1.2 Actual Situation and Extent of Damage
Extensive forest die-back due to the immedi
ate effect of SO 2 emission, for example, can
be observed mainly in the Erzgebirge-mountain
range (CSFR, GDR), and Isergebirge-mountain
range (GDR). For the most part of Europe, ho
wever, slight to moderate damage prevails. In
the Federal Republic of Germany nearly half
of the forest area is affected by the new ty
pes of damage but only 15 per cent are seri
ously affected or dying (Fig. 1) /3/.
FOREST AREA X
g 3-4 severely
Q2 moderately
[7)1 sligntly
[jO without
damaged and dead
damaged
damaged
visible danage
Fig. 1: Extent and development of forest da
mage in the Federal Republic of Ger
many
What is certain is that the damage depends on
species, age of trees, altitude and expositi
on. Seriously affected trees can be found
especially in the Alps and a number of low
mountain ranges.
Considering the progress of forest decline in
Europe, inventories limited to individual
countries are no longer adequate to monitor
the scope of this pandemic process. The first
measure taken by the Commission of the Euro
pean Community (EEC.) was to establish a stan
dardized terrestrial inventory at permanent
sample plots in all member countries. The as
sessment method used is basically identical
to the method described above. First results,
relevant for the years 1987/1988 are now
available through the EEC /12/. Mention must
also be made of an international survey of
forest damage in Europe which is coordinated
by the United Nations Economic Commission for
Europe (UN-ECE). This survey assesses forest
damage not only in western, but also in
eastern Europe and uses similar methods /18/.
2 AERIAL INVENTORIES BY COLOUR INFRARED
PHOTOGRAPHS
2.1 Regional Pilot Projects
In addition to inventories taken in field
work, remote sensing methods based on the in
terpretation of Colour-Infrared (CIR) photo
graphs is a common practice since 1982.
Aerial inventories in EEC countries started
in 1985 with pilot projects conducted in Bel
gium, France and West Germany to develop and
apply a modular inventory and monitoring
system based on CIR-photographs /10/.
One of the main results of these pilot pro
jects was to define common parameters for the
unitary classification of damages. These pa
rameters can now be applied individually in
the different countries /9/. Under the
guidance of teams involved in the pilot pro
ject, Danish, Irish, and Italian foresters
have successfully taken aerial inventories
and it is expected that other countries will
follow their example in the near future /5/.