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International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol XXXV, Part B-YF. Istanbul 2004

1. INTRODUCTION
The growth of the local territory comes with informations
multiplication describing this territory and whom live in it:
activities localization, transportation mean facilities,
fundamental and patrimonial management, etc. These
informations set gives by a way or another an attribute of
localization, accessible either under a precise localization
form or under an available aggregation form according to
predefined carvings. Their visualization under plans or
maps form remains one of the simplest way to understand
them. This double imperative, from an information
management to the increasing complexity and territorial
visualization of its extension and dynamic, imposes a
rationalization gait of storage and access to localized
data.Currently, this since more than 15 years, one of the best
possible choices for organizing the technical and social
information of the city is called the Geographical
Information System (GIS).
c» WHY GIS
Townships own specialized plans without scales
concordance, proper each service (land registering, PTT,
forest services, hydrography services, control services and
the network road maintenance, water network franchisees ,
purification and gas...) and not always actualized.
Searching information is difficult for the elected people,
administrations, companies, citizens. Networks knowledge
is random and often tributary to human memory (elected
people, technical agent, secretary of town hall, etc...).
Decentralization laws and notably those relative to
expertises transfer have given increased power to the
territorial collectivities in the space management and soils
occupation domains. Townships need simple use tools to
help taking decision and giving answers to the territory
problematic management, road infrastructure improvement,
water management and environment protection.
More and more, numerous townships, even of modest size,
endow themselves of a GIS. This latter is part of the new
tools of help to management and decision susceptible to
answer to collectivites needs. These last years, the
situation has evolved a lot: the computering tools are more
and more rife and therefore less and less expensive,
software is more and more easy to use.
The digitalization of land register is mastered today. It is
structured, normalized, independent from software and
easily exchangeable to serve as plan funds to the different
actors of Township territory.
2. GIS AND EXISTANT COMMUNICATION
TECHNIQUES (INTRANET / INTERNET)
The function of consultation and geographical data diffusion
on an Intranet - Internet is a considerable technological
advance in terms of information diffusion, an advance that
we probably do not measure all its effects yet. The functions
are at a time simple diffusion functions and functions
dressing a more technical character. They allow :
- To consult existing information;
- To extract the mass plans in view of amenities projects or
particular analysis;
- To update the textual informations on certain objects
whose user has the direct mastering;
- To communicate graphic annotations to server's operator
for an ulterior graphic modification.
95
3. PROCEDURE OF REALIZATION OF A GIS
COMMUNAL BY THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH
Facing the increase difficulty of the management of the
local territory, actors of this territory are in search of
effective tools to help them in their tasks. They turn more
and more toward the GIS of which the interest, in the
context of the planning and the management of the territory,
resides mainly in three aspects. First of all, a GIS is a
system of information whose particularity is to treat
information that possess a spatial reference. It is therefore
composed of a database of spatial reference (BDRS), what
confers it big capacities for the storage and the management
of large set of data. Then, a GIS possesses tools of treatment
and analysis of georeferenced data that facilitate the
synthetic information obtaining. Finally, by its possibilities
of regrouping and relating information, a GIS can be an
appropriate place of meeting privileged for the different
partners whom take care of this territory.
The development of these system types requires an
architectural diagram of the different information of this
system. We can compare to those that would have an
entrepreneur if we asked him to construct a building without
providing him an architect plan and a gait of realization.
And the same case appers in geomatic: more the work or the
system to achieve are complex, more the plan becomes
necessary and inevitable to its construction. the systemic
representation of the territory is to the local GIS what is the
architect's plan to the building.
3.1 Territory Systemic Representation Approach
The development of the Systematic Representation of the
Territory (SRT) rests indeed on a systemic approach and
ensue from the fusion of the different models of explanation
of the real world in a coherent interdisciplinary
representation. The systemic is the survey of systems. Many
authors consider it like a science with its rules and its
vocabulary.
It is founded on taking into account the interactions and
feedbacks and puts the accent on the determination, the
definition and the description of phenomena and their
relations. It also tries to define a unitary language of as very
natural system representation according to the existence of
common properties between these different systems
[WALLISER, 1977]. Following this definition, we are
obliged to put in evidence the notion of system.
According to Walliser (1977), consider a system like a
constituted non separable unit of components in
interactions, as an indivisible unit cannot be reduced to the
sum of its parts. As he has formed a system in three
fundamental categories: components, relations and the all.
Let's note here that deepening in the theory of systems is not
the goal of this communication.
Schwars (1994) bases on the three fundamental categories
of Walliser to propose a new formalisation for a general
system. On this latter, we inspire the systemic modelling of
our territory. Schwars (1994) put that all existing system,
that it is a bacterium, a family or a road network, possess
three plans of existence (Fig. 1) :