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Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management
Damen, M. C. J.

¡metric proces-
. The latter ac-
when orthopho-
photomaps are
fsis of the se-
fcore influen-
э remote een-
Dartography on
bital photo-ex
£F-6 earners du-
commander V.F.
V. Aksyonov, 15-
s stated in se-
978, Новаковский,
ge,1982) the
arities of the
ssibilities for
graphy (especi-
photoimages and
practical aspec-
e instance of
rbital stereo-
aken by the "3o-
the south-eas-
ley and north-
y mountain sys-
-Fergana physi-
Alay valley and
mir region). Ex-
arried out on
stereomaps: or-
tereograph SC-1
>hot-B (GDR).
Lg space ortho-
th this modern
;he theoretical
lues, merits and
it, itself, ana-
i results etc.
research (see,
!3, Балашов,
,1984) . Within
we shall consi-
'es including
;omap . That would
)blem of its di-
)us morphometric
rsis. The drawing
) 000 scale) on
lucted after the
vas obtained with
)t-B (Новаковский,
i approximately
)00 initial spa-
31. Drawing was
Ltional stereo-
3 isolines on
эf mountainous
intervals, or
3 etc.) are used,
the isolines i3
steep slopes
ches no longer
map'в scale ) .
solines may be
olines (worth
я interrupted,
has demonstrated
chnique of dra-
interval are in-
ay area, becau-
fully cover the
photoimage itself, greatly reducing the in
formative value of the orthophotoimage. Ta
king into account the detailed analysis of
space photographs accuracy and pattern of
their stereophotogrammetric processing,
this and also great slope gradients of a
mountain area dictate the expediency of ac
cepting bigger interval of cros-'&ections.
With experimental purposes the interval ac
cepted for SC-1 proceseing was 200 m, and
for the Topocart - 250 m. Fragments of the
main component parts of a space photomap
for a section of the Pamiro-Alay area are
presented by figures 1 and 2.
photographic features of the locality.
While developing methods of photomap ap
plication one should note two ways broade
ning the possibilities of their use in geo
graphical research: 1) a correlated inter
pretation of the photoimages and an analy
sis of their thematic contents,* 2) a cor
rection and refinement of the derivative
maps on the basis of the initial photocar-
tographic image.
The first way is rather evident. The jo
int study of the cartographic and the pho
tographic images allow the performance of
a constant visual correlation of the photo
Figure 1. Space orthophotoimage of a frag
ment of Pamiro-Alay area.
Fig.1 is a space orthophotoimage while Fig.
2 - gypsometric picture of the territory.
One can see that the accepted interval bet
ween the isolines prevents their merging
and allows for preserving the informativity
of the orthophotoimage and representing all
the forms of high-mountain relief correct
ly. It should be noted that the drawing of
relief was corrected on the basis of oro
graphic scheme also stereophotogrammetri-
cally compiled from space photographs. In
certain cases we afforded slight shifts of
isolines to approximately 0.5 of the inter
val for the purposes of greater expressive
ness and geographical plausibility of the
The main stages of producing the 1:500 000
photomap of the Pamiro-Alay area through
the Topocart-Orthophot-B complex were as
follows: obtaining an orthophotoimage, com
piling an orographic schematic map, produ
cing a relief original, image interpreting
in the process of stereodrawing of lands
cape elements (such as spatial distributi
on of glaciers), imprinting isolines into
the orthophotoimage and general design of
the map. The method printing isolines pro
viding for high quality of the photomap was
accepted. The printing form was derived di
rectly from the gypsometric original, after
that the picture of relief was printed in
to the orthophotoimage in brown paint. The
procedure preserved all the photographic
details raising at the same time, the data
content of the map due to pseudovolumetric
gypsometric image effect and structural
image indicative elements and the thematic
contents of photomaps. Thus, the photogra
phic featues are further corroborated and
"strengthened" by the hydrographic network
pattern, topographic features etc. which
makes the analysis more reliable. The stu
dy of photomaps unveils such topographic
and landscape, features, as well as, the
details of configuration and structure that
cannot be noticed in separate analysis of
maps and photographic images.
The use of photomaps assigns a greater
importance to the indicative approach which
allows studying phenomena by their exteri
or, indirect manifestations. Photomaps ma
ke it possible to reveal the latent quali
tative data on phenomena and processes fix
ed in their morphological features to a ful
ler extent. Photomaps rather than maps and
photographic images facilitate the defini
tion of the structure of the orographic and
hydrographic elements, their configuration,
mutual orientation, combinations etc. Besi
des, photamap8 make it easier to bring out
the background factors, typical of the gi
ven territory and the abnormal deviations
arising out of the local regularities. The
good prospects for simultaneous analysis of
horizontal and altitudinal anomalies of re
lief should be emphasized too.
Another feature of photomap application
lies in the possibility of their use to re
fine the derivative morphometric, correlai,
tive and other maps (see, for instance fig.
3-6). The image phototone and texture al
low a more precise determination of the