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Sharing and cooperation in geo-information technology
Aziz, T. Lukman

Communications in Fotomatics
A review on traditional milestones in the field of education and
communications in Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and
GIS/L1S highlights the following events :
The education in Photogrammetry started short after the
invention of the photography by NIEPCE ( FRANCE ) in 1839,
which led to the plane-table photogrammetry.
Dealing with plane table Photogrammetry might still today offer
new educational and even scientific aspects.
The invention of the airplane on the beginning of our century
became another milestone for the development of
Aerial photography stimulated for several “classical” inventions
of analog instruments for visualization, interpretation and
geometric evaluation, which partly appear on the market almost
until today. These instruments are namely the Stereoscope, the
Stereo-Comparator (about 1900 by PULFRICH), the
Stereoplotter, the Multiplex, the Rectifier and the analog
Highlightting this queue, in 1956 HELAVA invented the hybrid
Analytical Plotter, which was based on an early computer.
From a progressive point of view these are all historic
instruments, though they are party still in use and even still in
From dealing with traditional photogrammetric instruments, the
multiplex principle has been identified as a very important
educational tool to visualize photogammetric realations.
Therefore every School, teaching Photogrammetry today,
Should procure and run at least 2 multiplex related projectors,
possibly assisted by ISPRS.
Communication in Fotomatics
1.1 Guidelines for cuuricula in Fotomatics
Guidelines for currila in Fotomatics must consider both,
traditional and advanced Photogrammetry. The general content
of a curriculum can be derived from the valid or suggested
topics of the ISPRS Commsisions, which are, e.g.,
Professional Matters, Project suited for applications of
Fotomatics, Sensors, Image Generation (including data beses
via www), Image-Rectification (including GIS etc. ) and Image
- Interpretataion ( including artificial intelligence).
The following basics in Photogrammetry shall assist in
education, but shall also stimulate for
Photogrammetric research and give practical figures, like the
optimum base length for photogrammetric triangulation
Undergraduate education in Fotomatics in Particular should
start with practical training in stereoscopy offering own
experience in stereo-photography.
3.2. Basic Education in Stereo-Photogrammetry
Stereo-Photography, as a very important basic stop for a good
documentation, stimulates the interest in our profession and
might even be applied as proffesion on its own!
In partiular some million historic stereo pairs beside their
documentary value, with important geometric information, wait
for restoration and comparison purpose etc..
As an example the authors successfully maintain the “ Stereo
image archive Prof. Schuhr”
With wordwide samples and access.
As a matter of fact, moving back to the roots, still shows a
surprising great demand for research work, already in the basic
field of stereoscopy. It is the intention of the authors to point to
this research gaps, e.g.:
• a systematic investigation of the complete stereo aids,
available, in particultural to be used on a PC:
From a proper dealing with this problem even the future of
the whole computer industry can be changed.
A candidate for a new PC generation (!) might be the so
caleed “3D tube” which generates 3D laser based models
within a cylindrical plexiglass tube in colour and in real time
for direct vision.
Other stereo-principles without any guarantee for completeness
should also be subject for education and research:
stereocopes : lens stereoscopes, mirror stereoscopes, mirror
stereoscopes without lenses,
polarized light
liquid crystal shutter glasses
optical gate
chroma depth
continous Profilling
-“one-eyed sun glasses” for watching particular video
sequences, which have been taken
from a moving platform (e.g..car, train, boat, airplane)
perpendicular to the moving direction.
Also the video camera can be fixed, but then the object must
show a perpendicular movement to the camera direction. To
obtain a 3D impression in colour, this video sequence is shown
on a TV screen, but observed with ordinary sun glasses with
one missing dark glass.
• Which is the optimum base-length for stereo photography ?
A first result for the optimum base-length “b” between
maximum and minimum base-length is :
(s’/2c) * ymin. > b >_ (10 mm/c(mm)) ~k ymax.
This formula has not been published so far.
With s’ = image length
c = focal length
c(mm) = focal length in mm
y min = minimum object distance
y max = maximum object distance
b = optimum base-length
An extention of the maximum base length would lose the
stereosopic effect, while a shortening of the minimum base
length would reduce the relative point accuracy of 1:1000, as
introduced here.
For a camera with c = 40 mm focal length and a 6x6 cm image
format this simply results into the interval for an optimum base-
length “b” :
0.75 -k ymin. > b > 0.25 ★ ymax.
For an amateur-camera with c = 28 mm focal length and a 24 x
36 mm image format the optimum base-length “b” is :
0.6 ~k ymin. > b > 0.3 ~k ymax.