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Proceedings of the Symposium on Global and Environmental Monitoring

Present and Future of Earth Environmental Monitoring
System in Japan
Korehiro Maeda and Osamu Ryuguji
Earth Observation Center(EOC),
National Space Development agency of Japan (NASDA)
1401 Ohashi, Hatoyama-machi,Hiki-gun,Saitama-ken
350-03 Japan
Earth environment is one of the most important items for human-beings.Japan is also
interested in earth environment problem. In order to resolve such problem, it is
necessary to observe the whole earth from space. NASDA developed both space segment
and ground segments for MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) and MOS-lb. NASDA is
also developing space and ground segments for JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resources
Satellite-1) in collaboration with MITI (Ministry of International Trade and
Industry) and developing ground segment for ERS-1(European Remote Sensing
satellite-1). NASDA is developing ADEOS (ADvanced Earth Observing Satellite) which
has two core sensors and 6 AO sensors. Concerning domestic AO sensors, two
equipments were proposed by the Environment Agency and one equipment was proposed by
MITI.Concerning foreign AO sensors, two equipments were proposed by NASA and one
equipment was proposed by CNES. TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) is a
joint project between NASA and NASDA and NASDA will develop precipitation radar in
collaboration with CRL (Communications Research Laboratory). NASDA will participate
in international polar platform program and develop JPOP (Japanese Polar Platform).
In this paper,the outline of earth environmental monitoring by MOS-1 data is
presented and the present and future earth environmental monitoring system is also
Global change problem is increasingly important
for human-beings.Earth environment can be
monitored from space. Earth observation satellite
is one of most important means to monitor global
change of the earth environment. NASDA launched
the first earth observation satellite named
Marine Observation Satellite-1 (MOS-1) on
Feb.19,1987 and launched MOS-lb on Feb.7,1990.
MOS-1 and MOS-lb data are received by 11 MOS-1
receiving stations in the world. Since there is
no tape recorder mounted on MOS-1 .monitored area
is limited to the area covered by these stations.
On the other hand,future Japanese observation
satellites will have on-board data recorders and
some satellites will use data relay satellite. By
these satélites, not only global data but also
regional/local data can be obtained under the
limitations of capacity of data recorders and
data transmission line. In order to contribute to
the earth environment problem, only development
and operation of space and ground segments are
not sufficient. For that local, regional and
global data set should be continuously
constructed and provided to those who is involved
in earth environment. In this paper, present
status of earth environment monitoring system by
MOS-1 and future system are described and
We have many environmental problems in the world.
Examples of such problems are deforestation,
expansion of desert, polution of ocean, increase
of sea surface temperature, change of marine
current, abnormal weather, acid rain, increase of
carbon dioxide, decrease of ozone and others. In
order to resolve such problems, it is necessary
to .first of all, understand the whole earth as a
earth system and to take countermeasures. The
former is problem of earth science and the latter
is problem of technology, economy and politics.
Concerning earth science, local, regional and
global data concerning earth system should be
gathered continously. Concerning the
countermeasures, new technology should be
developed and some space technology can be
In Japan, there are several environmental
problems and more people are interested in these
problems. Japanese old prime minister Mr.Uno
stressed in Arche summit held in Paris in
July,1989 that environmental monitoring from
space should be promoted. Many Japanese agencies
and universities are studying and developing for
global environmental problems.
Most important means for global environmental
monitoring is earth observation satellite system
consisting of space and ground segments. Global
change can be monitored continously for the first
time by using earth observation satellite.
In order to establish earth environmental
monitoring system, the following requirements
should be met.
(1) Space segment
- To observe the whole earth continously
- To observe various targets in the required
precission in the required repetition
by using combination of sensors
- To record and process sensor data onboard
(2) Ground segment
- To receive, record, process and distribute
- To develop useful data sets and distribute
- To have access to directry of any data from
To provide requested data through
communication data network
- To transfer sea, ground truth and other data
via satellite