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Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management
Damen, M. C. J.

This work was carried out in London during June 1985
(Stove, 1985) with the aim of identifying leaking
water mains, sewer collapses end piperuns below the
pavement surface. The main conclusion from this
work was the complementary nature of the two systems
since the impulse radar provides information relating
to the depth of features beneath the terrain, that is
in the vertical plane, whereas the TVFS provides date
about the spatial extent of the phenomenon in the
horizontal plane. For example, at one particular
sewer site the ground impulse radar indicated a
marked discontinuity between the structure of the
road and the fill materiel beneath; normally this is
indicative of poor compaction or voiding in this
zone. Also, a reduction in the radar signal velocity
occurred which indicated that the material in this
zone was of a much higher moisture content then the
surroundings. Analysis of the TVFS imagery over the
same area was carried out by density slicing the
thermal emissions to indicate l°c temperature
intervals. A clear indication of the size of the
sewer was obtained and a marked increase in emission
was detected corresponding to the discontinuity
recorded by the ground impulse radar.
The work on this particular application is at an
early stage of development and a method of automating
the measurement of any correlation between the
data from these two complementary sensors is
currently being considered. One possible solution may
be to reformat the output from the ground impulse
radar and record this on videotape (Stove, 1985).
The radar data could then be digitally formed into
image form and registered with the TVFS date.
6.5 Further Applications
In addition to the projects outlined above TVFS
systems have potential application for many other
environmental engineering projects including: oil
pollution monitoring, monitoring of spontaneous
combustion of waste tips, power station cooling water
discharge monitoring, ground water and spring
detection and hydraulic leakage from dams.
TVFS systems differ considerably both in optical
design and in radiometric characteristics from
thermal linescanning instruments. A wide range of
instruments are currently available using distinctive
imaging techniques. Such instruments provide an
alternative method of acquiring thermal data and, in
general, at lower cost, if a light aircraft is used
as the measuring platform. By using suitable image
processing techniques and ground temperature
measurements for calibration purposes quantitative
thermal characteristics of the terrain can be
deduced. It is suggested that TVFS systems have a
significant role to play in the acquisition of
thermal data for environmental engineering projects
particularly when used in conjunction with other
complementary remote sensing or geophysical sensors.
The authors wish to thank the following organisations
and individuals for their assistance with this
project; Barr and Stroud Ltd, University of Surrey
Research Committee, Professor G. Petrie, University
of Glasgow, Mrs V. Brown, University of Surrey.
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