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Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management
Damen, M. C. J.

Symposium on Remote Sensing for Resources Development and Environmental Management / Enschede / August 1986
oach &
and land
or use with
nd Karnul
.Ramana Rao
of Cuddapah
.Ramana Rao
a part of
s, Andhra
g techniques,
f Photointer-
ehra Dun.
aluation of
n of Land-
ersity of
971. Soils
es of Andhra
«oil corre-
Director of
dhra Pradesh,
uplift and
logy of the
Farm development using aerial photointerpretation
in Ruvu River Valley, Ragamoyo, Tanzania, East Africa
B.P.Mdamu & M.A.Pazi
Ministry of water energy & minerals project preparation division, Tanzania
ABSTRACT: Soil survey study using romote sensing techniques is important in agricultural
development planning. Aerial photography has to be enhanced in acquiring accurate soil
and other natural resources maps. Aerial photographs were used to delineate soil bounda
ries of a 10,000 acre farm at Maktirunge Village in Bagamoyo district. The virgin wood
land project area lies approximately 6.5 and 6.75» South and between 38*5 and 39«0
East. Rainfall is bimodal with intervening short dry season. Landscape mapping was phy-
siographically done using 1:50,000 aerial photographs taken in 1966. Landforms were
almost flat alluvial plain and undulating coastal plain» The soils originated from sedi
mentary and metamorphic rocks with alluvium deposits. After collecting and analysing a
total of 206 soil samples, a soil map was compiled at a scale of 1:10,000. Analytical
data revealed that soils were non-saline with reasonable amounts of available phosphorus,
nitrogen and organic matter. Proper soil management practices are essential in improving
the soil conditions.
1.1. Purpose of the study
Agriculture is the backbone of Tanzania's
economy. In 1982 the government outlined
a national agricultural policy which was
aimed at foods self sufficiency in the co
untry. In implementing the policy a nu
mber of firms government and private, sta
rted to open up newland for development.
One of the areas opened up being Makurunge
Farm in Bagamoyo district.
However, in order to be precise in land
planning and soil fertility management
soils had to be tested scientificaly and
evaluated. The Project Preparation Divi
sion in the Ministry of Water, Energy and
Minerals was requested to carry out a Semi
detailed soil survey of 10,000 acres and
make recommendations on the soils potenti-
lity and fertility status. The field soil
survey was started on 6th August, 1984 and
ended up on 4 th September, 1984. A total
of 52 soil profiles were dug and described
and 206 soil samples collected for Chemical
analyses. Therefore this paper is a result
of the conducted soil survey and the soil
analyses conducted to determine the soils
physical and chemical characteristics and
their suitability to agricultural purposes.
1.2. Site Location
The Makurunge farm is in Bagamoyo district
l6.0km. South West of Bagamoyo township.
It is bordored in the East by Ruvu riveTr,
in the south by Msumbiji river, in the No
rth and North West by the Old Makurunge
Village. It extends between latitudes
6.5 south and 6.75 South, and between lo
ngitudes 38.5° Bast and 39.00° East. The
area also lies within the coastal belt of
the Indian ocean and its altitude is within
200 meters above sea level. Most of the
area is a virgin woodland w r i th bush. It
consists of two landscapes namely:-
1. The coastal plain area and
2. The Alluvial flood plain.
In general the entire area has a more or
less low uniform relief with drainage va
1.3« Climate
This area has two rain seasons. The heavy-
long rains begin in March and end in June
whereas the short rains normally start in
October and December. The rains are cau
sed by the movement of the Inter Tropical
Convergence zone (ITCZ) over the area. The
convergence zone moves across the area in
October when the belt is shifting from the
Northen hemisphere to the South and some
time in January when the belt moves from
the southern hemisphere to the North. The
duration of the short and long rains de
pends upon the fluctuations of the belt
over the area.
The climatological data obtained from
Bagamoyo town meteorological station which
is situated l6.0km East of the Makurunge
Farm and fo\ind within the same elevation
of the project area, indicates that the
mean annual rainfall is between 800 and
1000mm. The highest rainfall is received
in April with a precipitation of about
286.9mm. A pronounced dry season starts
in June to September. There is a short
dry season from January to Mid March. The
average mean tempre is 24.5 C. (figure 2).
1.4 Geology of the area
The geological substratum of the region is
underlain by rocks of the kainozoic system
which is stratigraphically made up of se
dimentary and metamorphic rocks. The flood
plain valley is dominated by recent alluv
ial material deposited by the river during
floods. Which consist of silt clay and
raregravels. The coastal plain area is
made up of sedimentary and metamorphic
rocks with interbedded sandy clays and
scattered gravels; calcareous materials
are found in some localities at deeper
depths (l00-150cm) e.g pits number 4-13»
25-29 (Appendix 1).