Full text: Sharing and cooperation in geo-information technology

International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Voi. XXXII, Part 6. Bandung-lndonesia 1999 
Prof. Dr. Jan J. Nossin 
International Institute for Aerospace Survey 
and Earth Sciences 
ITC, Enschede, the Netherlands. 
1 Earth Observation by Remote Sensing 
- the need for investment in human resources ; a reservoir of knowledge to apply the technology. 
2 RS data and Information Extraction 
- thematic and metric informaton; geo-based information. 
3 Users Identification 
- planners, decisionmakers, technical and scientific users. 
4 Domains of Application 
- product user fields; environmental analysis and management. 
5 Relationships Between Technical And Users Levels 
- the gap between data collection and management capacities, and the users' capacities for application.. 
6 GIS, Remote Sensing and Information Management 
- temporal analysis; overlays; scanned air photos. 
7 Transfer Of Knowledge on Remote Sensing Application 
7.1 Facilities of Knowledge Transfer 
7.2 Subject Matter 
- for interpreters 
- for mapmakers 
- for planners and decisionmakers 
- image processing . 
8 Constraints and Obstacles 
Although airborne remote sensing techniques (radar, infrared 
line scanning, multispectral scanning) expanded the earth 
observation technology considerably, earth observation by 
remote sensing from space must be considered the real big 
addition in data collecting power. 
Landsat I, launched in 1972, marked the beginning of that era. 
The next step forward was the Thematic Mapper with its vastly 
expanded resolution both radiometric and spatial. It was 
followed by SPOT, improving the spatial resolution even 
further, to 10 m. for the panchromatic mode, but above all, 
adding a stereo-capability to our observations. 
* This will be my first premise: it will be clear that especially 
the Developing Countries stand to benefit immensely from a 
proper application of these technologies, to the inventory, 
mapping and monitoring, of their own resources, national 
territory, and environment. * 
* A second premise is that remote sensing is here to stay, as in 
1985 both EOSAT and SPOT Image have declared their 
systems operational. 
That means, among other things, that availability and continuity 
of data is assured within the limits of the system. The 
announced operational systems (SPOT and Landsat 6 onward) 
also work on a commercial basis - which means a substantial 
increase in the prices that the user has to pay for the data, 
compared to the prices in the experimental period. 
* Landsat 4 and 5 and beyond : 
Landsat 4 and 5: 
- Lower orbit: 705 km; scene still 185 x 185 km. 
- Ground resolution ca 30 x 30 m, for Thematic Mapper, 6 
bands + one in thermal IR with 120m resolution. 
- Temporal resolution (repetitivity): 16 days. 
Landsat 6 was lost in the launching (1993) 
Landsat 5 is still delivering imagery (1998) 
Information on the future of the Landsat Program as presented 
in 1996: 
Landsat 7 is being developed by NASA, launch scheduled for 
Dec. 1998. 
Ground data operations: at EROS Data Centre. Eosat Co 
operates Landsat data and has exclusive rights on Indian IRS 
data (more datails below), 
NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) and the EOS 
platforms (one a.m, one p.m and a ’chemical’ atmospheric 
platform) are still under development. Landsat 8 with advanced 
sensors is planned for 2004. 
SPOT : Satellite Pour I'Observation de la Terre 
Launch date 
SPOT-1:22 Feb. 1986 
SPOT-2: 22 Jan. 1990

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