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Sharing and cooperation in geo-information technology
Aziz, T. Lukman

International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Voi. XXXII, Part 6. Bandung-lndonesia 1999
Prof. Dr. Jan J. Nossin
International Institute for Aerospace Survey
and Earth Sciences
ITC, Enschede, the Netherlands.
1 Earth Observation by Remote Sensing
- the need for investment in human resources ; a reservoir of knowledge to apply the technology.
2 RS data and Information Extraction
- thematic and metric informaton; geo-based information.
3 Users Identification
- planners, decisionmakers, technical and scientific users.
4 Domains of Application
- product user fields; environmental analysis and management.
5 Relationships Between Technical And Users Levels
- the gap between data collection and management capacities, and the users' capacities for application..
6 GIS, Remote Sensing and Information Management
- temporal analysis; overlays; scanned air photos.
7 Transfer Of Knowledge on Remote Sensing Application
7.1 Facilities of Knowledge Transfer
7.2 Subject Matter
- for interpreters
- for mapmakers
- for planners and decisionmakers
- image processing .
8 Constraints and Obstacles
Although airborne remote sensing techniques (radar, infrared
line scanning, multispectral scanning) expanded the earth
observation technology considerably, earth observation by
remote sensing from space must be considered the real big
addition in data collecting power.
Landsat I, launched in 1972, marked the beginning of that era.
The next step forward was the Thematic Mapper with its vastly
expanded resolution both radiometric and spatial. It was
followed by SPOT, improving the spatial resolution even
further, to 10 m. for the panchromatic mode, but above all,
adding a stereo-capability to our observations.
* This will be my first premise: it will be clear that especially
the Developing Countries stand to benefit immensely from a
proper application of these technologies, to the inventory,
mapping and monitoring, of their own resources, national
territory, and environment. *
* A second premise is that remote sensing is here to stay, as in
1985 both EOSAT and SPOT Image have declared their
systems operational.
That means, among other things, that availability and continuity
of data is assured within the limits of the system. The
announced operational systems (SPOT and Landsat 6 onward)
also work on a commercial basis - which means a substantial
increase in the prices that the user has to pay for the data,
compared to the prices in the experimental period.
* Landsat 4 and 5 and beyond :
Landsat 4 and 5:
- Lower orbit: 705 km; scene still 185 x 185 km.
- Ground resolution ca 30 x 30 m, for Thematic Mapper, 6
bands + one in thermal IR with 120m resolution.
- Temporal resolution (repetitivity): 16 days.
Landsat 6 was lost in the launching (1993)
Landsat 5 is still delivering imagery (1998)
Information on the future of the Landsat Program as presented
in 1996:
Landsat 7 is being developed by NASA, launch scheduled for
Dec. 1998.
Ground data operations: at EROS Data Centre. Eosat Co
operates Landsat data and has exclusive rights on Indian IRS
data (more datails below),
NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) and the EOS
platforms (one a.m, one p.m and a ’chemical’ atmospheric
platform) are still under development. Landsat 8 with advanced
sensors is planned for 2004.
SPOT : Satellite Pour I'Observation de la Terre
Launch date
SPOT-1:22 Feb. 1986
SPOT-2: 22 Jan. 1990