Full text: Mapping without the sun

Liu Ping, Liu Jiping, Zhao Rong 
Chinese Academy of Survey and Mapping, 100039, office@casm.ac.cn 
KEY WORDS: important geographical elements, statistics, spatial analysis 
This paper base on the spatial data, discuss how to searching for the disciplinarian of basin’s residential circs, traffic lines, stream 
nets and soil conditions such important geographical elements’ spatial distributing in the analysis of spatial information technology, 
aim to through analysis the correlation data, depict the important geographical elements’ spatial distribution pattern, distill their 
distribution quantitative and molar disciplinarians, so as to offer references to the international rivers’ exploiture and utilizing 
programming, analysis and compositive evaluation. 
The World Wide Fund for Nature, which Headquartered is in 
Switzerland, press release a report titled ((Ten rivers which 
facing the most serious danger in the world)) on March 20, 2007. 
The report noted, for the infection of climate changing, 
pollution and other factors effective, some of the world's major 
rivers are facing increasingly serious danger of drying up. This 
report release before the "World Water Day" on the March 22, 
listed 10 rivers which facing the most serious threat of drying 
up, including Asia's Mekong - Lancang River, SALWEEN-Nu 
River, the Yangtze River, the Ganges River and the Indian 
River, the Danube in Europe, South America's Rio de la Plata, 
North America's Rio Grande River, the Nile in Africa, 
Australia's River Murray-Darling River. 
Freshwater rivers are the main source of human being’s 
limnetic requirement, because of the mismanagement and lack 
of adequate protection, humanity will be faced with serious 
limnetic scarcity crisis. Pollution, global warming, illegally 
built dam and such phenomena on the spread, inducing several 
representative rivers on the earth in the coming decades facing 
severe crisis of survival. Therefore, we should protect the river 
as part of the national security, people's health and economic 
achievements, potentiate river protection, establish evaluation 
model, accelerate compositive analysis and evaluation of the 
international rivers, provide scientific basis to the 
decision-making of drainage areas. 
International rivers are the important compositive proportion of 
our national water resource. Our nation’s Yun Nan, Xin Jiang, 
Xi Zang and other 7 provinces, municipalities altogether share 
international river over than 100 streams, international rivers’ 
utilization and distribution equitable and reasonable base on the 
esteeming “domain integrity” and “domain sovereignty”, 
process nations compact cooperate. Besides, it consanguineous 
interfix with basin’s economy cooperate, community 
development and region’s peaceful and stabilization. Therefore, 
it is a compositive and complicated problem bestraddle on 
subjects and frontiers. 
Progressing logical analysis and layout of the basin’s abundant 
resource is the foundation of the environment, economy, 
society harmonious evolutive. Through spatial analysis, spatial 
statistics such methods gain the residential circs, traffic lines, 
river nets, soil conditions and such important geographical 
elements’ spatial distribution information along different 
altitudes, different admin-districts, different distances of the 
river bank and different anabranches, analysis their spatial 
distribution disciplinarians, meanwhile, combine local practical 
complexion, macroscopical considering the rationality of city 
planning is essential and significative. 
Through the statistics and analysis on the map measure and 
configuration survey, study on objects’ distribution and 
relationship, gain average, maximum, minimum, and etc value, 
so as to consider them as a collection investigate objects’ 
quantity characteristics; besides, analysis variables’ spatial 
characteristics, quest for the distribution disciplines of basin’s 
important geographical elements. 
2.1 Through calculate the measurement and 
configuration indexes, statistic and analyze basin’s 
important geographical elements. 
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Figure 1 Statistic flowing figure of calculation the 
measurement and configuration indexes

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