Full text: Mapping without the sun

temporal knowledge representation based on the explicit 
description of possible changes to geographic phenomena 
modeled at a high level of abstraction as identifiable objects. 
Starting with a set of basic types of change with respect to the 
existence and non-existence of objects with identity, a 
methodology was presented that systematically built on these 
fundamental concepts and derived further types of change that 
were possible. This change-based model provided a better 
understanding of the set of possible alterations to which an 
object can be subject as it evolved over space and time and 
enabled the extension of spatial data models and the 
development of GIS query languages that incorporate such 
semantics of change. Although no explicitly spatial information 
has been incorporated in this model of change, it has been 
shown that tracking changes to an object’s identity over periods 
of existence and nonexistence, gives useful insights into the 
behavior of an object over time that are relevant to many cases 
of spatio-temporal change. Christophe Claramunt proposed a 
standard way of designing STPs, aimed valid for every data 
model that supports the time and space dimensions. He 
presented a taxonomy of basic STPs, extended the spatio- 
temporal processed in two ways, and derived a complete 
classification, including endogenous approach and exogenous 
processes, consisted of Translation, Succession and Permutation, 
Re-allocation, Split and Union, Production, Reproduction and 
Transmission, introduced related database modeling issues, 
expressed three design patterns in a spatio-temporal object- 
relationship data mode (Christophe Claramunt 1997). 
2.2 Spatio-temporal Process Classification 
In this paper, we propose a practical classification of Spatio- 
temporal process. For the reason of actually implementation, we 
get used to the conception of Layers, Such as we know, Layers 
are widely used for the construction of geographical data, when 
we construct the spatio-temporal data storage in the database, 
there are three features patterns, includes points, lines and 
polygons within a layer, for each geographical object or 
phenomenon, it is able to represent in the three patterns of 
features. On the basis of three patterns, classification 
corresponding each pattern is proposed to describe the process 
of change of spatio-temporal objects. Hence we draw up a 
spatio-temporal process taxonomy which is used for the 
taxonomy of STP by the analyzing of essence of phenomena 
change, it can be showed in the following graph: 
Figure 1. A graph for taxonomy of STP 
The procedure that from start to end has no difference except 
the time variable has been changed, we name it a REMAIN 
process, this process is easily ignored, but in the real database, 
the record about this information is solidly stored in the Spatial- 
temporal database. 
Apart from the process of REMAIN, we propose a detail 
definition of the spatio-temporal change patterns, 
transformation occurred during the Spatial-temporal process 
could be reflected in many ways, in the paper, we plan to 
classified them in two aspects, one of them occurred in the 
geometric aspect, we give it a name GEOMETRIC CHANGE; 
Another can be happened in thematic way, which can be named 
after THEMATIC CHANGE, the reason for this classification 
lies in a logical design pattern of database, there is a common 
way for the data storing strategy that the geometric data and 
property data are separately deposited but with a weak relation 
by the using of keywords. 
Refer to the GEOMETRIC CHANGE, we propose a deep 
classification which are named INDEPENDENT CHANGE and 
DEPENDENT CHANGE, the rules for this division base on 
whether the process of one spatio-temporal object is depend on 
that of another or not, there are two kinds change for this 
division, the first one which the procedure of change without 
identity verified is a endogenous process, the second one, 
exogenous process, companioned by transformation of objects 
identities change in most time. We assume exogenous process is 
prior to independent change, because only one object has been 
bom(or created), some process could take place in the 
independent change. Those two kinds of conceptual process 
need to be classified in an embodying way. 
2.2.1 Embodiment of DEPENDENT CHANGE 
The first process of DEPENDENT CHANGE is BORE, for 
each spatio-temporal object, the creation is the most and the 
very beginning step during it’s life circle, the BORE process, is 
a opposite process of DIE, means that a newly objects exist 
after a death of others, also has many instances. 
The Second process we name it DIE, the process is regarded as 
a termination of a spatio-temporal objects, The DIE process can 
be described in such a way, the identity of the object has change 
into another or the geometry has vanished, the process is a 
creation of the new objects, leading to the contrary process of 
We propose SPLIT as a basic process for the description of 
change occurred involving several spatio-temporal objects, for 
the SPLIT process, at the beginning, there is one object has an 
integral part of geometric properties, in the end, newly bom 
objects have been created, with the initiate state would be 
The last process we propose for the concreting of geometric 
change, in the UNITE process, several object will be united into 
one objects, companioned by the reducing of identities for the 
objects and the geometrical transformation, as a result, the 
former objects were replaced by one objects. The process often 
have a expanding of area. 
2.2.2 Embodiment of INDEPENDENT CHANGE 
There is a common phenomenon that a spatio-temporal object 
enlarge it’s size due to a lot of reasons, in order to represent this 
kind of process, we name EXPAND, by the demonstrating of 
growing space the object occupied, this phenomenon can be a 
basic classification of spatio-temporal process, which may be 
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