Full text: Proceedings of the Symposium on Global and Environmental Monitoring (Part 1)

Ron E. Johnson 
Investigations and Enforcement Branch 
Ministry of the Environment 
The creation of the Investigations and Enforcement Branch has clearly reinforced the 
Government of Ontario’s commitment that illegal pollution will not be tolerated. 
The branch was created in July 1985, with the responsibility of all aspects of environmental 
enforcement within the Ministry of the Environment. The Branch consists of 59 Investigators, 
33 Support Staff and 18 Management for a total of 110 personnel. 
Within this branch is an Aerial Ground Surveillance Unit and an Air Photo Interpretation Lab. 
The airborne unit is called "Operation Skywatch". It consists of the NINETY-NINES INC., 
an international organization of women pilots, with a common interest in flying. The pilots 
volunteer their flying time to the program. They are also involved in educational, charitable 
and scientific aviation activities. The group was established in November 1929, with Amelia 
Earhart as founder. The Ninety-Nines derives its name from the number of original charter 
members who organized to further the role of women in aviation. 
The aircraft used for aerial surveillance is the Cessna 172. It has been modified to serve as 
a platform for both oblique and vertical photography, both shot in stereo. The camera used 
is the Pentax 645 model. To obtain optimum results on colour negative or transparency film, 
220 film is used. This is utilized for fast turn around time with film processing labs. 
The photo interpretation lab is equipped with instruments such as the Bausch & Lomb Stereo 
Zoom Transfer Scope, the Bausch & Lomb SIS-95 Magnifying Stereo Scope, the Zeiss OV- 
Stereo Pret, microscopes (low power) for viewing transparencies, and hand held 2-3-4-6 and 
8 power stereo scopes, as well as brief case portable light box stereo combination for field 
office interpretation. 
The lab is also set up for the production of captioned displays and the preparation of mosaics 
for court exhibits. 
All of the film processing and colour printing is sent out to commercial labs. 
Historically the use of maps, models and sketches preceded the practice of remote sensing 
and photographic techniques to record the air-ground and water body relationships to one 
another. With the acceptance of the photograph as evidence in environmental proceedings, 
the camera has become an indispensable tool of the environmental Investigator. 
Aerial and ground surveillance enhances the Ministry of the Environment’s surveillance 
program by providing regular monitoring from the air, adding new dimensions to interpretation 
and evaluation. 

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