Full text: Remote sensing for resources development and environmental management (Vol. 1)

ter basins, snow and ice, tectonic structu 
res, PTK themselves, if their structure is 
to be recognized* 
Indicators or indication objects are conce 
aled from the visual observations and remote 
registration components landscape elements 
PTK, processes, taking place in the landsca 
pe, ecological regimes, genetically or ter 
ritorially connected with indicators* The 
depth of bedding and mineralization degree 
of the first subsoil waters' horizon from 
the earth's surface, the direction of subso 
il flows, local concentration of subsoil wa 
ters, looking like lenses, rocks with their 
lithologic and granulomentic composition, 
tectonic structures and processes, soils, 
frost, climate with its individual indices, 
The landscape interpretation reliance is 
increased, if the interpreter has at his dis 
posal the greatest possible member of indica 
tors and the revealed links with indicators* 
Due to that the interpretation results are 
many times controlled* The plurality of fe 
atures and indicators depends on the train 
ing level of a specialist, his knowledge in 
the field of geology, geomorphology, pedolo 
gy, vegetation ecology and other branches of 
To reveal the ecological estimation and 
PTK grouping on remote sensing photos method 
of landscape ecoindicators is developed and 
applied* The method implies the ecological 
interpretation of the following components 
and landscape elements: relief, quaternary 
deposits, soils, vegetation, people's acti 
vity results, land-use type, natural comple 
xes' structure itself* With the emergency of 
space photos the number of ecological indi 
cators is considerably widened* The impor 
tant indicators are: the distribution and dy 
namics of snow cover, ice situation on water 
basins, dynamics of surface moistening and 
watering, cloud cover structure, tectonic 
structures* The pointed indicators are espe 
cially effective, when they are to keep the 
atmospheric and climatic unity of natural 
The combined analysis of all the ecoindi 
cators allow to reveal them reliably in na 
ture and on space images, to estimate the re 
lative gradations of their ecological regi 
mes: drainage, alluvial, flooding, tempora 
ry perched ground water and flowing with so 
il and subsoil waters, relative richness of 
the substrate and waters, etc* The stimation 
of ecological regime in accordance with the 
individual indicators is not reliable becau 
se of the insufficient closeness of the con 
nection and missing of cross control results* 
The PTK themselves are the most physiogno 
mic on air-space Images due to their unity 
in age genesis, modem structure and ecolo 
gy* Structure unity and homogeneity are unde 
rstood as the same set of PTK which form a 
monotonous, rhythmic combination* That re 
sult s in principle of landscapes revealing 
on the basis of PTK indicators* PTK can be 
indicators conformably to the space survey 
of the terrain and stow* PTK as indicators 
must meet the following requirements: 1) clo 
se connection of PTK with the revealed land 
scape; 2) the specificity of PTK for the gi 
ven landscape and the absence of other PTK; 
3) sufficient physiognomy on space images* 
Both natural and subjected to anthropogenic 
changes PTK with arable lands, burned out 
areas, excavations, constructions can be la 
ndscape indicators* It is interesting to note 
that the anthropogenic changes open quite 
new PTK's sides, which make them more physi 
ognomic* So, for example, the ploughing up 
of the Siberian south relief with its hills 
and padings makes 4Lt particularly physiogno 
mic, since on the arable lands' images the 
characteristic spots appear* The land-utili 
zation character itself characterizes the 
PTK ecology* 
The experience of operations with space 
images showed that bog stows are the most 
physiognomic and contrast indicators of tai 
ga zone* They are seen even on the Images of 
bad quality* Besides they are dosedly conne 
cted with the morphological landscape struc 
ture and the tectonic regime. 
To realize the method of ecoindicators it 
is possible to use the combined analysis of 
images, topographic and thematic maps* Their 
analysis allows to control the correctness 
of PTK revealing and revealing of their na 
tural borders* 
The guiding role in PTK formation belongs 
to the lithogenic basis* That results in the 
principle of PTK revealing in the limits of 
genetic relief forms and elements i*e, ter 
ritorial and typological taxons* 
Landscape remote sensing of forests, per 
formed in the West-Siberian plain and the 
Siberian platform indicated that when revea 
ling great PTK, the concept i6 perspective 
that the tectonic structures and earth's 
crust blocks are their foundation* The tec 
tonic movements cause the series of events 
which are developed on the landscapes surfa 
ce and they influence all its components, 
morphological structure and ecological re 
gimes • 
Positive movements increase the surfaces* 
height causing denudation, formation of the 
fresh erosion network with the emergency of 
non-forest, bare slopes* Valleys and estua 
ries are deepened and straightened, bottoms 
of watercourses are narrowed, the height and 
differentiation of terraces are increased* 
As a result rolling, ouval, ridge, hilly, 
dismembered landscapes are formed, in which 
slope natural complexes have a great share* 
On the slopes, bottoms of watercourses qua 
ternary deposits reduction is observed and 
the natural rocks often expose on the surfa 
The erosion opens the aquifers, the total 
lowering of subsoil waters level takes place, 
the territories are dried, the icy, frost is 
The autonomous eluvial natural complexes 
are widely spread in the landscape in these 
complexes leaching, saul removal, strengthe 
ning of podzolizing which causes the lowering 
of the trophness are developing* 
On bogs positive movements change the stru 
cture of the complex of ridges and pools for 
the part of increasing the ridges' area, at 
the expense of pools and lakes* Further bogs 
are fegraded and covered with forests* 
The increase of forest areas takes place 
in the landscape owing to bogs and tundras, 
the part of wood species, positively reacting 
on the drainage, such as fir, spruce, aspen, 
European birch in the forest composition is 
also increased, the part of wood species, 
positively reaching on frost degradation, 
such as pine stands owing to frost resistant 
larch trees is increased* Landscape draina 
ge causes the risk of fire occurrence and fo 
rest damage by pests that is why the deriva 
tive forest communities are widely spread* 
The landscape dryness, the rapid warming-up 
form the arid or continental macroclimate* 
The reverse phenomena occur when the nega

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